Smartphones help researchers better understand the nature of depression and anxiety

Smartphones help researchers better understand the nature of depression and anxiety

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Decades of research into anxiety and depression have resulted in the development of models that help explain the causes and dimensions of the two disorders.

For all of their well-established utility however, these models measure differences between individuals and are derived from studies designed using few assessments that can be months or even years apart.

In other words, the models are highly informative, but not optimal for examining what’s happening emotionally in a particular person from moment to moment.

Now, a University at Buffalo psychologist is extending that valuable research to repeatedly and frequently measure symptoms of specific individuals, in real time, to learn how immediate feelings relate to later symptoms.

The research casts anxiety and depression in a manner not previously studied and the results suggest that some emotions linger in a way that predicts feelings beyond what’s happening at specific times. This information could provide treatment benefits for patients struggling with the disorders, according to Kristin Gainey, an assistant professor in UB’s psychology department and the study’s author.

“Clinicians aren’t primarily interested in how one person’s symptoms compare to someone else, which is what most studies focus on. Rather, they’re most interested in how to shift the feelings of someone with anxiety or depression. In other words, they want to understand how to change the emotional experiences of a given individual over time and across different situations,” says Gainey, an expert on emotion and affect in mood and anxiety disorders and a recent recipient of one of the American Psychological Association’s Early Career Distinguished Scientific awards. “The only way to get at that directly is to measure these processes repeatedly within a person as they’re happening.”

To do that, Gainey conducted baseline assessments on 135 participants, each of whom were already seeking some kind of psychological treatment.

Three times a day for 10 weeks, the participants received surveys on their smartphones about their feelings and symptoms. They completed the survey within 20 minutes of its arrival.

“That generated enough reports to provide a good sense for each person’s fluctuations and trajectories of symptoms and affect (defined as the objective feeling state that’s part of an emotion),” says Gainey.

A smartphone provides a portrait of immediacy that questionnaires distributed in a lab that summarize feelings over extended periods are unable to achieve.

“We can’t always remember accurately how we felt days and weeks ago, especially if there were some days you felt really bad and other days you felt great,” she says. “That’s not easy to summarize in a single index.”

Anxiety and depression are each unique disorders, but they often appear together in a single patient. Both disorders share high levels of negative emotions, such as fear, sadness and anger, while low levels of positive emotions, like excitement and interest, are unique to depression.

Gainey says it’s not surprising that particular affective states, like feeling happy or feeling sad, might be responsible for symptoms experienced soon afterward. What researchers don’t know much about is how long those affects tend to persist, and which specific symptoms they lead to hours or days later.

“This study let us see that some affects were short-lived, but for depression, if you were feeling high levels of negative affect, even if we control for how depressed a participant was at that time, it was still predictive of increased depression 24 hours later,” says Gainey.

That might suggest that clinicians could track peoples’ positive and negative affect in real time and plot trajectories that are indicative of increased risk.

“If we can identify specific risk factors for increased symptoms in real time, we could even use smartphones to send suggestions about helpful strategies or alert the person’s mental health care provider,” she says.


Tens of thousands of UK children have PTSD due to bullying and violence, Lancet study finds

Tens of thousands of UK children have PTSD due to bullying and violence, Lancet study finds

57 per cent of those who personally endured a trauma suffer from the condition

Nearly 100,000 children are suffering from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) because of severe bullying and violence, researchers have warned.

The first comprehensive study of the issue in Britain found 7.8 per cent of people under the age of 18 are living with the condition more commonly associated with veteran soldiers.

Its authors warned of a hidden epidemic whereby children suffering from nightmares, irritability and concentration problems are going undiagnosed and untreated.

Barely a third of children with PTSD seek help from their GP, while only one in five ever get to see a specialist, the research found.

Published in the Lancet, the study should increase awareness of PTSD among parents and teachers, the team at King’s College London said.

They drew on a cohort of 2,232 twins born in 1994 and 1995 who were given a full psychiatric interview at the age of 18, following four previous assessments between the ages of 5 and 12.

Just over three in 10 children were found to have experienced some kind of trauma during their childhood.

The most common type was so-called “network” trauma, where a child find out about a traumatic event suffered by someone they know.

However, among those who went on to develop PTSD – 57 per cent – the most common reason was direct personal experience, or the treat of experiencing, assault, injury or sexual violation.

This included bullying in school.

Professor Andrea Danese, who led the research, said: “Our findings should serve as a wake-up call – childhood trauma is a public health concern yet trauma-related disorders often go unnoticed. Young people with PTSD are falling through the gaps in care and there is a pressing need for better access to mental health services.”

Symptoms of the condition include re-living traumatic events through distressing memories or nightmares, avoidance of anything reminding them of trauma, feelings of guilt, isolation or detachment, as well as irritability, impulsivity and difficulty concentrating.

Previous research has found that the risk of PTSD following exposure to trauma is greater in girls.

The new study revealed that half of young people with PTSD had self-harmed, while one in five had attempted suicide since the age of 12.

A quarter were not in education, employment or training, and half said they experienced high levels of social isolation or loneliness.

“One of the distressing things is how few of the young people with PTSD received treatment,” said Professor Danese, who also practises as a NHS consultant child and adolescent psychiatrist.

We have very effective ways of treating PTSD, but they are most effective when the treatment occurs early on.

Dr Stephanie Lewis, who co-authored the study, said: “Young people who have been exposed to trauma often have complex problems, which become increasingly difficult to assess and treat.

“We encourage parents and carers to seek support from health professionals if their children are exposed to trauma and are suffering from distressing psychological symptoms.”

The research was funded by the Medical Research Council, a UK Government funding agency.

Weight loss: The free exercise plan which helps to burn hundreds of calories REVEALED

For the good of your health or in a bid for new-found confidence, for those who are overweight, slimming can be very beneficial. Creating a calorie deficit by consuming a healthy, balanced diet and regularly exercising, is a recommended way to lose weight. However, that’s not to say that beginning your training regime can seem like the easiest of tasks. Whether you’re not sure which exercises to do, or find the prospect of working out to be daunting, improving your fitness can bring unsettling feelings.

In a bid to encourage others to get moving, DW Fitness First and Reebok have teamed up, launching a free dance inspired work out series created by Reebok brand ambassador Danielle Peazer.

The professional dancer and fully qualified personal trainer has produced the five 10-minute work out sessions based on her training guide, the Danielle Peazer Method.Using her experience in the field – or rather, on the stage – the 30-year-old’s programme aims to tone the body in the same way as a professional dancer would.

The series are currently being rolled out, since January until this May, and will be available to stream for free on a variety of channels – including DW Fitness First’s ‘CORE’ app and MTV, as well as on the DW Fitness website.

So, what can you expect from the work out?

Inspired by dance, the programme contains traditional HIIT exercises, as well as more stylised moves.

Weight loss: The free exercise plan which helps to burn hundreds of calories REVEALED

Weight loss plan: Danielle Peazer created the five 10-minute work outs which are inspired by dance (Image: GETTY • DW FITNESS FIRST • REEBOK)

Divided into five sections, covering mobility, abs and core, upper body, lower body, and dance, DW Fitness First’s Head of UK Gym Floor Experience Tim Andrews estimated the full work out could burn approximately 350 and 400 calories.

Estimated calorie information per 10-minute work out

  • Work out 1 – Mobility – 60 calories
  • Work out 2 – Abs & Core – 60 calories
  • Work out 3 – Upper Body – 70 calories
  • Work out 4 – Lower Body – 80 calories
  • Work out 5 – Dance – 80 calories

The cardio aspect and weight training are combined in the work out.

Speaking to, Danielle said: “I think it’s better for your fitness if you can combine cardio with a little bit of weights.”

Weight loss: The five 10-minute exercise plan aims to tone your body (Image: DW FITNESS FIRST • REEBOK)

Weight loss: Danielle Peazer hopes the work out will empower women through exercise (Image: DW FITNESS FIRST • REEBOK)

And, the personal trainer explained, she felt the music playlist could serve as a good distraction method for some, so those taking part can focus on what they were listening to, while toning their body.

As well as toning up, the programme also aims to make working out as accessible as possible – hence the option to follow the moves in the gym or at home.

The reason for the work out? Danielle explained she hoped the collaboration would empower women through exercise, whilst having fun and getting fit.

7 Facts You Should Know Before Opting for Plastic Surgery

7 Facts You Should Know Before Opting for Plastic Surgery

All plastic surgery, procedures carry very tangible health risks.

From being a glamorous and niche option, it has now become fairly common to get a little help to look your perceived best. From a little nip, a little tuck, to the more invasive nose job, tummy tuck and facelifts. Now the risk factor for each of these interventions varies immensely, but the thing to remember is that all procedures carry very tangible risks.

Mental Health

First and the most important aspect is your mental health. If there is a physical feature that makes you highly insecure and unhappy, ensure that it is not resulting from a form of body dysmorphia – a serious disease wherein patients perceive even minor flaws as hideous deformities. Often what happens with patients with Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is that they opt for one cosmetic enhancement after another, attempting to physically correct a problem resulting from a mental health issue.

This process will also help you establish a goal – what do you want to change, and what does the end result look like? Actually ask yourself – is this a procedure worth it?

Choose Your Team Well

The next step is to select your medical team. Depending on the procedure, there will be levels of interventions – lifestyle changes, anesthesia, post-op downtime and so on. For this, I would highly recommend that you consult the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India (APSI). Their website is comprehensive and informative, and filled with answers to questions you may not have even considered.

So if you have disqualified a mental health concern, and carefully selected an informed way forward, what could still go wrong? Unfortunately, a whole bunch of things.


The most obvious is infection. As is the case with any wound, the site of surgery can become infected.

Nerve Damage

Cosmetic surgery and nerve damage have a strong link, with botox being a common cause of facial paralysis, and high incidences of changes in sensitivity. These could be irreversible.

Anesthesia Complications

Complications from anesthesia are as common in cosmetic surgery as any other form of surgery. This could be in the form of strokes, lung infections, and even heart attacks.

Blood Clot

After surgery, it is possible for blood clots to form in the deeper veins of the body and then travel to the lungs, known as a pulmonary embolism. This can be fatal.

Organ Damage

Any invasive process carries with it the possibility of organ damage, creating the need for further surgeries to correct an error.

Cosmetic surgery is a complex science and it is crucial that you choose the correct team, cooperate meticulously with care instructions, and be aware of everything that could go wrong. In trying to look like your best self, do not put your health on the back burner and go into any cosmetic intervention with complete knowledge of the pros and cons.

14 Kids Who Made Their Parents’ Hearts Drop

To develop creative thinking and learn to employ yourself, children need time to get bored. At the same time You have to be suspicious when your kids suddenly don’t speak, chances are they are doing something evil.

When we think we can no longer be surprised at the mess, the children prove us otherwise!

01. Mom, here is a nice foamy cup if cappuccino! 

14 Kids Who Made Their Parents’ Hearts Drop

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02. Well, they are real currencies

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03. You have it all wrong. I’m trying to clean it up! I found this mess

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04. A great test! How well do you know your keyboard?

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05. Well, he found his own pool, just a little smaller..

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06. Baby Life hack

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07. It is called creativity

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08. They said I could be anything, so I became a turtle

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09. I am done Childhood..Let us be cathood

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10. Well, this is not her best pose

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11. Mom, I enjoy long walk in the beach

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12. Go for shopping they said, it will be fun they said

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13. I Know this is not supposed to happen at church and I swear we are not Satan worshippers

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14. Now do not complain your pets

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Have you witnessed this before? Comment it.

This Jhansi Ki Rani Aka Kangana Ranaut Rode A Fake Horse! Netizens React!!

This Jhansi Ki Rani Aka Kangana Ranaut Rode A Fake Horse! Netizens React!!

Kangana Ranaut’s Manikarnika: The Queen of Jhansi released amidst a lot of controversies. Now, long after the movie released, it continues staying in the limelight for all the wrong reasons. A video of Kangana riding a fake horse that gallops on a trolley dug in the ground has gone viral on the web.

While, the Rani of Jhansi is seen slicing the British warriors with her sword, the other warriors in the background are seen riding real horses. Indeed, this had the Netizens in splits and they just couldn’t stop trolling the actress. Here are some of the trolls:

😂😂— Sailing Cloud (@twinitisha) February 21, 2019

🙄😂😂😂 ye bohat chalega— Mask indian 🇮🇳 (@Mr_LoLwa) February 21, 2019

Had me dying especially the part when actress hollered the war cry. 😂😂😂— Easternguy (@Easternguy143) February 21, 2019

Inspiration for Majnubhai painting in Welcome 😂😂😂😂— Maya (@IamMayaSharma) February 21, 2019

Modern Jhaansi ki Rani…😂😂— Kamran (@kamrank) February 21, 2019

😂😂😂 what lies beneath!— Dr Nazma parveen (@nazmaaman) February 21, 2019

Wah Jhansi ki Rani wah !— Fevoc (@fevocism) February 21, 2019

Aisi bani Manikarnika??😂😂😂— 🇮🇳Ashwini🇮🇳 (@AshwiniPalkar1) February 21, 2019

Ye kya h yarrr 😆😆😆😆😅— Arun Adhikari (@ArunAdh58469434) February 21, 2019

Clearly, it’s not a good time for Kangana Ranaut. It all started with the actress taking over the directorial reins of Manikarnika after Krish (the original director) walked out. Post the movie’s release, Krish in an exclusive interview blasted Kangana for distorting history and snipping scenes of several supporting actors at the edit table. Furthermore, actors like Sonu Sood, Atul Kulkarni, Mishty Chakravarty too slammed the actress. Even, Simran writer Apurva Asrani resurfaced to say that her game is brutal.

However, knowing Kangana, she called out to all of them by asking them to “Stop crying”. And she didn’t stop there as she even slammed Aamir Khan, Alia Bhatt for not supporting her movie. Alia, however, in return gave a dignified answer. While, one would have expected Kangana to calmly react, she again shot back and blamed the entire Bollywood industry, swearing to teach them a lesson. Uff! This lady surely won’t stay calm and we’re done for now.

This actor is much more successful than all the 3 Khans of Bollywood

The 3 Khans (Salman, SRK and Aamir) are ruling the Bollywood since more than 2 decades.

This actor is much more successful than all the 3 Khans of Bollywood

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Aamir has done 40 films till date. His overall business from those movies is 1853 crore (box office India).

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Similarly SRK has done 60 films till now. His overall business from them is 2366 crore.

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If we talk about Salman, then he has done 69 films till now. Overall business from them is around 3365 crore.

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In comparison to these 3 Khans of Bollywood, Akshay Kumar alone has done 112 films till now. Their overall business is 3560 crore.

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Akki’s name was also among the rich list of Forbes 2018 with an overall business of 297 crore in that year. None of the 3 Khans featured in that list of 2018. So guys do you agree that Akki is a much bigger star than all the 3 Khans? Kindly share your thoughts in the comment section and stay connected for more such interesting update about top stars of Bollywood.

Check here the latest look of this beautiful actress

Check here the latest look of this beautiful actress

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Hello friends and welcome on another awesome article. Today I have brought an article about Karishma Sharma beautiful pictures. She is one of the beautiful actress in bollywood.

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Karishma was born and brought up in Delhi, India. Karishma Sharma like singing and shopping. Her favorite actress is Kareena kapoor.

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Hope you like karishma Sharma and her beautiful pictures. If you liked the post information, please do hit that like button and share it with all your friends and do not forget to follow us.

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Enraged BJP Escalates ‘where Were You’ Faceoff, Claims Rahul Gandhi Was At Gujarat Photoshoot During Pulwama Attack

Enraged BJP Escalates 'where Were You' Faceoff, Claims Rahul Gandhi Was At Gujarat Photoshoot During Pulwama Attack

A heated and deplorable political slugfest has broken out between the Congress and the BJP over the former party’s allegations wherein Randeep Surjewala and Rahul Gandhi had questioned . Now, the BJP has hit back, countering the Congress and posting ‘evidence’ of its own to show that it was the Congress president who was on a ‘photoshoot’ at the time of the dastardly attack.

On its official Twitter handle, the BJP has hit back at Rahul Gandhi, telling him “India is tired of your fake news” and citing that pictures posted by the Congress president purportedly showing the Prime Minister at a photoshoot around the time of the attack were actually from earlier in the day on February 14, and not from that afternoon when the suicide bombing attack on the CRPF convoy took place in J&K’s Pulwama.

Here is the BJP’s scathing counter:

Rahul Ji, India is tired of your fake news. Stop sharing photos from that morning to shamelessly mislead the nation.

Maybe you knew in advance of the attack but people of India got to know in the evening.

Try a better stunt next time, where sacrifice of soldiers isn’t involved.— BJP (@BJP4India) February 22, 2019

Further, BJP Delhi spokesperson Tajinder Pal Singh Bagga has highlighted a video posted by the Gujarat Youth Congress around two hours after the attack took place, where Rahul Gandhi is involved in festivities surrounding his Gujarat Jan Aakrosh Rally:

After Pulwama attack this guy @RahulGandhi was dancing. Shameless— Tajinder Pal Singh Bagga (@TajinderBagga) February 22, 2019

As per the BJP, the same video had also been posted by the Congress via other Twitter handles, but was later deleted.

When the attack took place, the Congress had first reacted by attacking the government, with Randeep Surjewala questioning the Modi government over security lapses, and Jaiveer Shergill attempting a jibe over the use of ‘Uri: The Surgical Strike’ dialogue ‘How’s the Josh?’ by BJP leaders. However, once the scope and devastation of the worst terror attack on Indian forces in recent history became apparent, the Congress changed its line to one of solidarity with the government.

The garb dropped earlier this week, however, with Randeep Surjewala accusing launching a ‘chai-samosa’ attack questioning the Prime Minister’s whereabouts, Rahul Gandhi linking the attack to his Rafale allegations and Haroon Yusuf communalising the matter by making an atrocious ‘can find 3kg beef but not 300kg RDX attack’.

This is how both India and US have failed in handling Islamic terrorism and are facing the music

This is how both India and US have failed in handling Islamic terrorism and are facing the music

New Delhi, Feb 22: Failure of both the United States and India to impose accountability or establish deterrence on Pakistan has encouraged the country to ‘continue a policy of backing extremists’ in both India and Afghanistan, a leading American daily has said.

The Washington Post in an editorial in the aftermath of Pulwama attack by Pakistan-based Jaish-e-Mohammed said India is confronted with a dilemma that both it and the US have repeatedly faced: what to do about the sponsorship of Islamist terrorist groups by Pakistan, a nuclear-armed state?

‘Diplomacy, sanctions and targeted military strikes haven’t worked; full-scale war is unthinkable. Yet the failure to impose accountability or establish deterrence only encourages the Pakistani military and its intelligence service to continue a policy of backing extremists in both India and Afghanistan,’ it said.

The editorial underlined that Pakistan is unlikely to act on any evidence provided by India on the Pulwama attack.

‘If the record of past terrorist attacks in India is any indication, Pakistan will not act even if evidence is provided. The same has been true of its response to terrorist attacks in Afghanistan, such as assaults on the US Embassy and other Western targets by a Taliban faction known as the Haqqani network, which Pakistan is also believed to support,’ it said.

Pakistan has long sought to use terrorists to gain leverage over India, with which it disputes control of Kashmir, and the US, which it would like to force to accept rule by the Taliban in Afghanistan, the daily said.

‘It is making headway on the latter goal with the Trump administration, which has been negotiating with the Taliban about withdrawing US troops. That increases the complications for Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, who faces a national election in the coming months,’ it said. With Agencies, Pic Google