Fruits and Veggies Under the Microscope

Strawberry

Fruits and Veggies Under the Microscope

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This young fruit is of the widely grown garden strawberry variety. The individual “hairs” can be clearly seen. They are the remnant reproductive organs of the individual seeds on the berry’s surface.

Broccoli

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Close-up of a broccoli head demonstrating a grodiscovermagazineup of juvenile buds. The minor pits unmistakable superficially are stomata, or breathing pores.

Peach

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Infinitesimal detail of the outside of a peach. The wool surface of peach skin is because of thousands of hairs, most of which are exceptionally short. Stomata, or breathing pores, are set apart in red.

Black Mulberry

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The dark mulberry has been developed since artifact, and is most likely initially from China. Here, the tiny detail demonstrates the individual fruitlets. The bushy surface is shriveled conceptive organs (shame).

Leek

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Cross-area through the leaf of a leek. The elastic tissue, called mesophyll, is regular of leaves. Here the leaf indicated amplified is simply 1.2 millimeters thick.

Potato

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This is a nearby of an “eye” of a potato with three developing shoots, the longest of which is around 4 millimeters in length.

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NASA BOMBSHELL: Saturn’s moon could harbour ‘crazy METHANE-BASED’ life, claims scientist

Earth was assumed until only recently to be the only planet in the solar system with liquid water. But space scientists now understand this is not the case, following decades of missions by US space agency NASA. And NASA is increasingly confident these watery worlds are the best place to look for alien life.

NASA has accordingly now launched its Ocean Worlds Exploration Program, in an audacious attempt to track down aquatic alien life.

Dr Amanda Hendrix, co-lead of the NASA Roadmaps to Oceans World Group, exclusively explains how the Ocean World’s Program represents one of the best chances of encountering alien life.

She said: “Ocean worlds may represent the best possibility, in our solar system, of finding life.

“We need to understand whether these oceans are habitable and if so, whether these oceans actually host life.”

NASA BOMBSHELL: Saturn’s moon could harbour ‘crazy METHANE-BASED’ life, claims scientist

Titan: Could Saturn’s moon be home to a bizarre methane-based life? (Image: Getty)

Cassini: Saturn’s moon, Titan, shown in UV and infrared wavelengths, could harbour alien life (Image: Getty)

And Dr Hendrix believes Saturn’s moon Titan represents a fascinating prospect for finding alien life.

The NASA scientist said: “Titan is a very unique ocean world because it has both an ocean at the subsurface and it also has liquid hydrocarbon lakes on the surface.

“So there could be some crazy form of methane-based life right there on Titan’s surface.”

However any life found in these oceans would certainly be simple, she adds.

“There would not be aliens with green heads swimming around in there.

“I think it is possible there could be some simple life forms in some of these ocean worlds in our outer solar system.”

The NASA Ocean Worlds Exploration Program represents a significant strategic shift in its attempts to find alien life, explains Dr Hendrix.

She said: “We used to think Mars was our best opportunity of looking for life, and now we know that Mars is not currently habitable.

Europa: NASA’s Voyager spacecraft took this iconic image of Europa (Image: Getty)

Europa Clipper Mission: Ice-penetrating radar will help us understand Jupiter’s moo (Image: NASA)

“Mars now appears to be our best chance of looking for past evidence of life.”

And Titan is far from alone in being a potentially habitable body in the star system, with Enceladus and Europa also high on the list of place to explore.

Enceladus is the sixth-largest moon of Saturn, while Europa is the smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter.

“The NASA Dragonfly Concept is a New Frontiers concept and the selection is between that and its competitor, the NASA Comet Sample-Return mission.

“I believe the decision about which will run will be made later this year.

“One of these missions will happen sooner rather than later, which is very exciting.

There are also proposed missions to visit Enceladus and that would take the form of a flyby mission.

“It turns out that Europa is a very challenging environment because the radiation environment of Jupiter is very intense, which makes it very difficult and expensive to operate a mission there.

“Enceladus, on the other hand, is spewing its ocean material right out at us into space, so it presents a much easier opportunity to study that material.”

NASA: The Dragonfly mission could explore Titan (Image: NASA)

Dr Hendrix explains how Titan has already been explored once before.

She said: “The Huygens Probe that was part of the Cassini-Huygens mission, landed on Titan’s surface.

“The probe was not designed to investigate the habitability of the surface, or to look for life, but it did land on the surface.

“But there is a mission concept, currently under investigation at NASA, the Dragonfly mission, and that would both land on Titan’s surface and fly around in its atmosphere, using a quadcopter-type design.

“This would tell us a lot about the habitability of Titan’s surface.”

NASA reveal space algae ‘key to manned Mars mission’

US space agency NASA is moving toward more deep space missions. In particular, a long-mooted mission to Mars could require at least a three-year round trip. And a growing consensus of researchers now believe algae could play a vital role in such long-term space missions.

A significant challenge for long-distance human spaceflight is the provision of the essential elements.

These include food, waste removal, radiation protection, water and oxygen.Mars is approximately 34 million miles (55 million km) distant, requiring crews to spend years on a spaceship.

And because crews cannot carry everything with them, they will need to grow it in situ.

Recent research suggests algae could solve this conundrum of long-term space travel.

NASA reveal space algae ‘key to manned Mars mission’

Mars Mission: Algae could play a vital role in long-term space missions (Image: Getty/SpaceX)

International Space Station: Experiments involving algae have been taking place on the ISS (Image: Getty)

In a 1961 experiment, a man in Russia lived for 30 days in a room of only 4.5 cubic metres, using only algae to convert his carbon dioxide into oxygen.

After three days the potentially harmful levels of carbon monoxide stabilised and, after 12 days, so did the methane emitted by his own body.

NASA’s Space Algae experiment on the ISS last year studied the way algae grows in microgravity.

“We wanted to figure out an inexpensive way to grow algae in liquid cultures in space,” says Mark Settles, from the University of Florida, who was the principal investigator on the project.

“Algae grows fastest in liquids, but there are a series of challenges for handling liquids in microgravity.”

NASA also tested whether certain genetic variations meant algae survived better in space.

To do this, NASA created mutations by subjecting the algae to UV light, then growing each different strain for 40 generations.

“We wanted to figure out what genes are really important for algae to grow well on the Space Station” says Settles.

“We are currently characterising whether we got significantly different strains compared to doing the same experiment on Earth.”

The most promising possibility is using algae as a food source, as many types are edible.

Algae: The green slimy stuff can provide food, radiation protection and oxygen (Image: Getty)

Algae: NASA has tested on many mutations of algae (Image: Getty)

For food purposes, it’s more than likely it would be used as a nutritional supplement rather than a dietary staple” says Kevin Tyre, a payload analyst at the International Space Station, who managed NASA’s Space Algae experiment.

Getting the nutritional balance just right is a problem, too.

“Depending on the species and strains, some algae can be too high in protein and nitrogenous compounds like nucleic acids, and some can have a high percentage of cell wall material in the biomass, so you might need multiple types that are selected or engineered for a balanced food source” says Wheeler.

For radiation shielding, there is also potential. In space, astronauts are bombarded by highly energetic particles known as cosmic radiation. Finding something to block that radiation is key to helping us survive in space.

Algae grows in a liquid culture, and if the reactors are placed on the outside of the spaceship, they could be used as part of the shield to block radiation, says Settles.

“The water in the media would serve as the shielding, but the algae would need to tolerate the cosmic radiation” he says.

Developing this idea requires both technology and strain research, to find the strains of algae that are not going to be destroyed by the radiation.

Algae could also provide waste removal, too. If human waste is used as a source of food for the algae, it will recycle nutrients like phosphorus and nitrogen into a form the astronauts can then potentially eat.

3 reasons why Roman Reigns will be remembered as one of the greatest of all time

3 reasons why Roman Reigns will be remembered as one of the greatest of all time

Roman Reigns will surely be regarded amongst the greats

The Mount Rushmore of pro-wrestling is a very short list, consisting of the absolute best in the business. Although the list differs from person to person, there are a handful of legends who are a lock on every fan’s list.

Ric Flair, Hulk Hogan, The Rock, Stone Cold Steve Austin and John Cena are some names that have revolutionised sports entertainment in more ways than one. Flair is perhaps the greatest technical wrestler of all time, having won a whopping 16 World titles in the process. Hogan is a world-renowned icon who is famous for bringing wrestling and Hollywood together

Rock and Austin are hailed by many as two superstars without whom, the WWE would have lost the Monday Night Wars against WCW. Cena has been the cornerstone of the WWE for a better part of the 21st century.

A couple from now, another name is bound to join this elite list. That name is Roman Reigns. Let’s take a look at three reasons why Reigns will end up being one of the greatest superstars of all time.

#3 A world-renowned name

Reigns is becoming a mainstream name at a fast pace

Thanks to social media, wrestling is reaching more people than ever in the history of the business. Much like the Rock ‘N’ Wrestling Era and the Attitude Era, wrestling is breaking barriers and attaining mainstream coverage on a regular basis.

So it shouldn’t come as a surprise that Reigns is one of the most recognisable WWE faces on the planet at the moment. With WWE’s annual tours to places like Saudi Arabia and the United Kingdom, the Top Dog is being exposed to a worldwide audience at an astonishing pace.

India is one of those nations that the WWE is trying its best to capture the market in. Although they still haven’t fully succeeded in doing that, Reigns has certainly managed to woo the Indian audience with his patented moves.

An example of how popular Reigns is among the Indian fans

As wrestling becomes more mainstream with each passing day, the biggest superstar of this era will gain more recognition. By the end of Roman’s storied career, he could quite possibly achieve the level of popularity the likes of Cena and Hogan enjoyed.

#2 One of two superstars who slew the Deadman in his yard

The elite two who have defeated the Deadman at WrestleMania

Reigns began breaking records as soon as he came up to the main roster. Along with his Shield brothers, he went on to win six consecutive 3-men tag matches before succumbing to The Wyatt Family at Elimination Chamber 2014. He eliminated 4 opponents in a traditional Survivor Series match in 2013, followed by breaking Kane’s long-standing record of the most Rumble eliminations.

Although he wasn’t the first to break The Undertaker’s undefeated streak at the show of shows, he will forever be remembered as being one of only two wrestlers who managed to do the unthinkable and pin The Undertaker in the middle of the squared circle at WrestleMania.

Defeating The Undertaker at WrestleMania is considered by many as being an even bigger accomplishment than being a WWE champion! And one can’t help but agree with this, looking at the extremely short list of superstars who have managed to do it, compared to a massive list of stars who have been WWE champions till date.

#1 This era’s John Cena

Reigns has been a part of 4 WrestleMania’s main event 4 times in a row

It is interesting to note that Roman Reigns has been on the main event at four out of the six WrestleManias he has been a part of. Reigns won his first two Mania matches as a part of the Shield, and has pinned future Hall Of Famers like The Undertaker and Triple H.

This might remind some fans of the kind of main event push Hulk Hogan and John Cena received in their heydays. Hogan was involved in the main event of the first nine WrestleManias, while Cena has headlined nine WrestleManias himself. It’s not a secret that WWE is keen on pushing Roman as the flag-bearer of this era. Whether the hardcore fans like it or not, Reigns is destined to be an integral part of WrestleMania for years to come.

With accomplishments such as these, plus the fact that Reigns has a good claim of being one of the greatest (and the most controversial) superstars of this generation, there’s not a shred of doubt that his name will be mentioned alongside the greatest superstars in the history of this business.

Harry Potter stars: Where are they now?

Harry Potter stars: Where are they now?

Daniel Radcliffe is an angel answering prayers on TBS’s new series “Miracle Workers.” But before he was fixing other people’s issues, he was fixing his own with a magic wand in the “Harry Potter” movie franchise. So what have he and his fellow “Harry Potter” castmates been doing since wrapping up those movies?

Daniel Radcliffe as Harry Potter

Radcliffe has taken on a series of unique roles on stage and screen including as a corpse in “Swiss Army Man” and Allen Ginsberg (pictured, with Dane DeHaan) in the film “Kill Your Darlings.”

Emma Watson as Hermione Grainger

In 2017, Watson took a turn around the ballroom as Belle in Disney’s live version of “Beauty and the Beast.”

Rupert Grint as Ron Weasley

Grint has acted in several TV series, including “Snatch,” streaming on Sony Crackle.

Ralph Fiennes as Lord Voldemort

Since “Harry Potter,” Fiennes has become part of another major movie franchise as M in the James Bond universe. He also earned a Golden Globe nomination for his role in Wes Anderson’s “The Grand Budapest Hotel” (pictured).

Dame Maggie Smith as Professor McGonagall

Smith played another strict, by-the-book character as the Dowager Countess of Grantham on “Downton Abbey.”

Alan Rickman as Professor Snape

Alan Rickman played France’s King Louis XIV in film “A Little Chaos,” which he also directed. He died in 2016.

Robert Pattinson as Cedric Diggory

Pattinson, who was only in the fourth “Harry Potter” movie, moved on to another major movie franchise, starring in the “Twilight” as vampire Edward Cullen.

Gary Oldman as Sirius Black

Last year, Oldman won an Oscar for his portrayal of Winston Churchill in “Darkest Hour” (pictured) and took on the iconic role of Commissioner Gordon in “The Dark Knight Rises.”

Michael Gambon as Professor Dumbledore

Gambon took on the role of Howard Mollison in the HBO miniseries “The Casual Vacancy,” which was also based on a book by “Potter” author J. K. Rowling.

Jason Isaacs as Lucius Malfoy

Isaacs recently starred as Captain Gabriel Lorca in the CBS All Access series “Star Trek: Discovery.”

Tom Felton as Draco Malfoy

Felton (with Jesse L. Martin, left, and Grant Gustin, right) had a season-long arc as Julian Albert on CW’s “The Flash.”

Brendan Gleeson as Mad Eye Mooney

Gleeson played retired cop Bill Hodges (right, with Jharrel Jerome) in “Mr. Mercedes,” a streaming TV series based on a Stephen King book trilogy.

Evanna Lynch as Luna Lovegood

Lynch took a turn around the ballroom on the 27th season of ABC’s “Dancing With the Stars” with her professional dance partner Keo Motsepe.