Study of the past through material remains is known as archaeology
Sources of Archaeology:-
1. Inscription:- Permanent script written on hard surface.
Base on content of inscriptions into 3 types.
1. Prashasti/Eulogy:- Where king is praised. (Glory/victory). These are placed at public.
2. Rajajnas:- Where royal orders are placed for public by kings Rajajanas or edicts.
3. Dana shasanas:- Where gifts given to temple written.
A. Public:- Gifts to temple by kings.
B. Private:- Gifts to temple by people.
Study of Inscriptions -> Epigraphy.
2. Coins: – Social, economic, Political, religious information. at particular period.
Study of coins -> Numismatics.
3. Monuments & Sculptures:- study of M&S -> Iconography.
Sanctum Sanctorom -> Where Gold is placed.
4. Excavated material:– We obtained pottery, textiles, tools, weapons, food grains, houses etc.
Radio carbon (C14) dating method used by archaeologist to know the age of Organic materials like food grains, bones, piece of tree etc.
Invented by American Libby, Physics professor.
Study of the past through records or literature is known as history
sources of history
1. Religious literature:-
This is earliest literature and indigenous literature.
This is of 3 types. They are
A. Hindu literature- Rig Veda is the first book in India also world written at 1500 BC
B. Buddist literature
C. Jain literature-
Religious literature began at 1500 BC
2. secular literature:-
It is non religious and indigenous literature.
It was began at 500 BC.
Astadhyayi is the first book in secular literature was written by Panini. It contains 8 chapters. It is also a first book on grammar.
Foreign accounts is non-indigenous because information provided by foreigners is impartial,trust,geniue.This is the reason why it is so special. This is divided into 4 types they are