All posts by kalikiri vishnu pal sai

The Land Utilization For Agriculture In India Economy


The land is the most important resource of natural resources of any country. The land has the Characteristic of inelasticity in supply. The economic development of a nation directly depends on the total land is available for cultivation. Therefore, the rate of economic growth of a country depends on the optimal utilization of land. Hence, in a dynamic world, certain modifications can occur in the existing pattern of land utilization.

1 Total Geographical area 328.72
2 Total reported area 305.61
3 Not available for cultivation 42.95
4 Forests 70.04
5 Permanent pastures & Another grazing land 10.14
6 Land under misc, tree crops and groves 33.51
7 Culturable wasteland 12.85
8 Fallow lands other than current fallow 10.48
9 Current fallows 15.75
10 Net are sown 140.02
11 The area was sown more than once 52.17
12 Total cropped area 192.19


The Table shows that the total geographical area of our country is about 328.72 million hectares. The total area repotted is about 306 million hectares. The total cropped area is about 192 million hectares. The total area under fallow lands is about 26 million hectares and the area under forests is 70 motion hectares. As a result of increased irrigation facilities, the cultivable wasteland has been declined to 12.85 million hectares. It is to be noted that still, 43 million hectares are not available for cultivation.

In addition to this, the Government has provided loans and subsidies to the farmers for land reclamation. Hence, more land has been brought under cultivation.

1. Recent trends in land utilization:-

The reclamation of waste and fallow lands is in good progress as a result of land reforms consisting of the abolition of Zamindari and Jagirdari systems. Such reforms enabled tenants to reclaim the waste and fallow lands for which they have acquired rights.

2. Increase in the area sown more than once:-

Expansion of irrigation facilities along with high yielding variety crops with short gestation period resulted from high significant increase in the area sown more than once.

3. Use of farmland for non-farm activities:-

Increasing demand for non-farm activities like industrialization, house sites,  etc.  resulted in a shortfall of culturable land. As a result, land brought under cultivation is marginal. In order to meet the requirements of a rapidly growing population, optimum use of land resources is essential.


Mineral Resources in Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh is a  mineral rich State ranking 2nd in the Country containing a vast and variety of Mineral engaged in mining of 42 Industrial minerals to name a few Limestone, Mica, Barytes, Bauxite, Beach Sands,  Steatite, Quartz, Feldspar, Manganese, Dolomite etc.  There is a still untapped and untapped Mineral Wealth throwing up, any opportunities in this field for the new entrepreneurs. The Andhra Pradesh in its Vision 2020 Document recognized Mines and Mineral Sector one of the State has also made certain structural changes for the speedy processing and disposal of applications of the interested entrepreneurs in obtaining Mineral Concessions in a transparent time bound manner with a view to saving the valuable time to the entrepreneurs. The State has an ambitious programme of processing and granting the Mineral Concessions “online” keeping in tune the advancement in Information Technology.

Mineral Potential:-

Andhra Pradesh is endowed with the vast variety of mineral wealth, much of which contains the Industrial Minerals. A wide range of these Minerals occurring in the State finds use in Fertilizer,  Ceramics, Refractories, Abrasives, Glass, Foundry, Oil Well Drilling Fillers, Pigments etc. The State produces about 42 Industrial Minerals including certain Minor Minerals. Some of the Minerals produced have placed the State among the leading producers in the Country. These Minerals include Mica, Barytes, Limestone, Dolomite, Fire Clay,  Ball Clay, Feldspar, Fullers Earth, Serpentine, Quartz, Quartzite, Silica Sand, Ochres,  Asbestos, Talc / Satire, Pyrophyllite, Calcite, Vermiculite, Feldspar, Dimensional Stones etc. The States mineral wealth is either under-tapped or untapped due to various reasons of Technology, Finance, Value Addition etc.

The state accounts for considerable reserves of important minerals, viz, Barytes (97%), Calcite (75%), Vermiculite (27%), Limestone (44%), Garnet (23%), Feldspar(5%), Fuller’s Earth (6%), Dolomite, Asbestos (96%), Fire Clay, Ball Clay (55%),  Soapstone, Quartz, Silica sand, Graphite, Quartzite, Diamond, Corundum, Mica, Pyrophyllite, Kyanite, Granite, Marble, Ochre, Apatite, Chromite, Shale, Slate, Tungsten, Limeshell, Limekankar, Green Quartz etc..,

Managampeta Barites

Mangampeta Barytes

Open Pit Mines:-


Mangampeta is in YSR  Kadapa district and has one of the largest reserves of barytes mineral in the world. The barites reserves were discovered in 1960 and it has been mined since 1967. Nearly 1200families lived in this village, which was shifted to a new site and rehabilitated by Andhra Pradesh Mineral Development Corporation (APMDC, a government company) which now owns and operates the mines. The Barytes mines are the pride of APMDC as it earns huge profits from these mines.

The mines here are not underground but the open pit type. Look at the above figure to get an idea of how this mineral is mined. In the picture, you can see a section that has been left un-dug. This is a monument of this mine and it also indicates how deep the mine is. Barytes available in the upper layers is of lower grade while those mined from a depth are of higher grade. Quality is determined by the grain size of the stone. Upper more lay barytes are in grey color while at lower levels it is white or cream white. Once the mineral deposit was discovered, it was tested in the labs and found to be of high quality. Surveys showed that it is available in very large quantities. A plan for mining barytes in the village was developed and the villagers who lived there were rehabilitated.

In the open pit mines, almost all work is done by machines. Shovel, bulldozers are used to remove overburden or the topsoil and rocks which are a waste. Six meter high benches are made(benches are the vertical section of a mine from where the mineral is removed) next to a ten-meter road. The road goes all the way down to the bottom of the pit connecting all the benches.  Mineral and waste rocks are removed from the sides by blasting. This is loaded by huge machine dumpers onto ten-tonne capacity tipper trucks. This is how one lakh tonne of barytes are mined in one month in Mangampeta.

Every day 16,000 tonnes of waste material and 3,000 tonnes of barytes are mined and transported.  It is a major challenge to dispose of the waste in such a way that it does not damage the environment too much. You must have seen a large whitish hill above the small building.

This hill was made by the waste materials deposited from the mine. Compare the vegetation growing there and in the actual mine area.  Plants and grasses adapted to this kind of soil from flying and spreading all around.

Look at the women working in the mines. They are drilling holes for blasting with explosives.


The ore is transported by the trucks to above the ground where it is crushed into fine powder and packed in large bags and sent off in trucks and railway wagons. This is the crushing and packing plant.

There are about 600 workers in this mine. Of these, about 152 are regular employees of the APMDC who get regular salary and benefits as per government norms. The rest are contract workers and trainees who are paid minimum wages only.



There are extensive coal deposits in the four districts of Khammam, Karimnagar, Adilabad, and Warangal. These mines are operated by the Singareni Collieries Company Limited (SCCL). This company was initially set up by a private British Mining company in 1886, which was purchased by the Nizam of Hyderabad in 1920. After independence, the government of India looks over this company. Today SCCL is jointly owned by the government of India and state government of Telangana. SCCL is currently operating 15 open cast and 35 underground mines in 4 districts of Andhra Pradesh and employs around 65,000 people (2012).

In Singareni coal mines coal is found as thick layers under the ground. If one dug from the ground level, first there will be some soil, after which there will be rocks and water. If we go further deep for about 200 or 300 feet we will reach the coal layer. In one area there can be several layers of coal separated by the rock or loose soil.

Blasting the coal: 


Every day the supervisors inspect the coal seam and give instructions for that day’s mining where the mining is to be done, and what safety measures had to be taken.  Different groups of people are assigned different tasks. One group was drilling holes with the pneumatic air compressor to plant the explosive rods. Resin packets were inserted to keep them in place. These explosives will be set off (detonated) by an electrical device. Strong rock like coal is broken in this manner so that it can be cut and transported. This process is called ‘blasting’.It is a hazardous process as sometimes, the blast can bring down the entire mine face sometimes, the blast can bring down the entire mine face sometimes, the blast can bring down the entire mine face causing the death of the miners. It has to be therefore done with great care and calculation.

Another group of miners was arranging wooden and iron supports to support the roof so that it may not fall down on the heads of the miners. One group was ready with flexible movable motor known as the drilling machine. This would be used to cut the coal after the blast. Now the blasting hole is ready.

When the entire preparation for blasting was complete. everyone withdrew to safe places. Then a Warning whistle was blown and then the detonator was set off Suddenly, the whole mine resounded with the boom of an explosion. The walls and the ground shook and it seemed as if an earthquake had hit the spot. There were smoke and dust everywhere. Slowly the dust settled. Two or three miners entered the dust cloud coughing. They walked over the coal that had fallen in the explosion using their rods to inspect the places from where the coal has fallen. At one spot the roof was weak so, it was supported with wooden beams and posts.

Transporting coal:-   


In this mine, coal is transported through conveyor belts. Earlier miners had to physically load the coal onto small wagons which carried the coal. Now dumper machines load the coal onto the conveyor belts which carry the coal to the ground level. Then the coal is graded and loaded onto trucks and railways wagons.  Singareni mainly supplies coal to thermal power plants of the government. Remaining charges. It establishes schools and hospitals.


Singareni Collieries provides quarters with roads,  drinking water, utilization water. It gives electricity at nominal charges. It establishes schools and hospitals.

Safety and Health Checkups:-

Director General of mines safety monitors safety aspects and periodical medical examination. The workers underground are not only exposed to accidents but constantly inhale coal dust which causes the dreaded ‘Black lung disease’, a form of TB. There are detailed guidelines for medical check-up of the miners and their treatment. Employees below 45 years will have thorough routine checkups every 5 years Employees above 45 years will have thorough routine checkups every 3 years. Miners with black lung disease are usually transferred to a different department over the ground.

New trends in Mining industry and miners:-

Recently there has been a great increase in demand for coal, especially for thermal power plants. However, our mines are not able to cater to this demand due to low productivity.  Hence the SCCL is devising plans for increasing production by shifting to open cast mining. It has therefore set up about  15 open-cast mines and introduced fully automatic machines through private contractors. These will be producing much more coal but employ very few people. It is also said that the coal reserves of these open cast mining areas will be exhausted in 10 to 15 years after which there can be no mining in this area.


Election commission of India


Part XV of the Constitution deals with the subject ‘Elections’. In this part, Article 324 is the sole article dealing with the Election Commission.  It is the most important constitutional body in terms of its crucial role in the conduct of all elections to Parliament and to the Legislature of every State in the country.  Conduct of elections in a transparent and fair manner is very essential in strengthening democracy in the country and in imparting legitimacy to the institutions of parliament and State Legislatures and to the Governments.

Article 324 States that the superintendence, direction, and control of the preparation of the electoral rolls and the conduct of all elections to Parliament and State Legislature and of elections to the offices of President and Vice President shall be vested in the Election Commission.


The Election Commission is a Constitutional body consisting of Cheif Election Commissioner and such number of other Election Commissioners as the President may from time determine.

Till 1989, there was only the Cheif Election Commissioner in the Election Commission. In 1989 two other Election Commissioners were appointed work-load on account of lowering of voting age to 18 years from 21. In 1990, the other two posts were abolished and it was again reverted to a single member body. In 1993, two members were appointed and since then it is continuing as a three-membered body till date, with the Cheif Election Commissioner functioning as Chairman. In case of any difference of opinion on any given issue in the Commission, a final decision is taken based on majority opinion among the three members.

Appointment: The President appoints the Cheif Elections Commissioner (CEC) and other Election Commissioner, subject to the provisions of any law made by Parliament.

When any other Election Commissioner is so appointed, the CEC shall act as the Chairman of the Commission.

The President may also appoint after consultation with the Election Commission such Regional Commissioners as he may consider necessary to assist the Election Commissioner in Performance of the functions conferred on the Commission. So far, regional Commissioners have not been appointed.

Thus, the constitution did not prescribe any qualifications for being appointed as Election Commissioners nor did it prescribe any procedure to be adopted before the President can appoint the Commissioners. It is left to the President and thereby to the ruling Government to decide on who should be appointed as the CEC or the other Election Commissioners.

Tenure of Office:-  The Constitution left to the President to determine the conditions of service and tenure of Office of the Election Commissioners.

The tenure of CEC or other Election Commissioner is fixed for a term of six years or until they attain the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier.

The members can resign from office before the expiry of their tenure.


An independent Election Commission is essential to ensure free and fair elections without which democracy cannot function successfully. To ensure the independence have been provided for in the Constitution.

  • The Cheif Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners have been provided with the security of tenure as they can only be removed in the like manner and on the like grounds as a Judge of Supreme Court. Thus, they can be the basis of a resolution passed to that effect by both the Houses of Parliament with a special majority on the ground of proved misbehavior or incapacity. This provision ensures that the CEC and other Election Commissioners cannot be removed by the President at his pleasure. The CEC and other Election Commissioners cannot be removed by the President at his pleasure. The  CEC  can act independently and impartially in his duties in view of the security of his tenure.

They can continue in office for 6 years or up to 65 years of age, whichever is earlier.

  • Conditions of their service cannot be altered to their disadvantage during their tenure.


1)  Functions mandated by the Constitution:-

a) The superintendence, direction, and control of the preparation of electoral rolls for all elections to Parliament and State Legislature.

b) The superintendence,  direction, and control of the conduct of all elections to Parliament and State Legislature and of elections to the Offices of President and Vice President.

c)  To give the opinion to the President or Governor on matters relating to the disqualification of the members of Parliament or of State Legislature respectively.

d)  In case the Proclamation of National Emergency is in force in any part of a State, and the State is also under President’s Rule for a period of one year, further extension of President’s Rule is possible only if the Election Commission certifies that extension of President’s Rule is necessary on account of  difficulties in holding general elections to the Legislative Assembly of the State concerned.

2)  Other Functions Mentioned in the Representation of People Act, 1950 and 1951 are to

a)  grant registration to associations and bodies as political parties,

b)  grant recognition to registered political parties as National or State parties based on their electoral performance.

c)  allot election symbols to the recognized political parties.

d)  allocate equitable sharing of time in electronic media for the contesting political parties for canvassing during the elections.

e)  fix the limits of election expenditure by a contesting candidate in Parliamentary /  Assembly Constituency,

f)  make a code of conduct for compliance by the political and contesting candidates and the Governments during elections, and

g)  determine the Constituencies to be reserved for STs in certain States.


The Election Commission has no separate staff. The President and State Governors shall make available such staff as may be required for discharging its functions. A Cheif Election Officer is designated for every state in consultation with the respective State Governments. The Cheif Election Officer functions under the control of  Cheif Election Commissioner. A District Election Officer is designated for each district who functions under the control of the Cheif Election Officer of the concerned State.





The Minerals Resources:-


Minerals are non-renewable resource supplied by planet earth to mankind. They are naturally occurring inorganic earth materials possessing certain physical and chemical characteristic. However, the term ‘minerals’ encompasses a wide variety of substances taken from the earth.

They can be classified broadly into four groups:-

  1. Metals:- Such as copper, iron, aluminum
  2. Industrial minerals:- Such as lime and soda ash.
  3. Construction materials:- Such as sand and gravel.
  4. Energy minerals:- Such as coal, uranium, oil etc.

There are 110 elements discovered till today. Out of these about twenty are radioactive elements or unstable elements which constantly dissociate. The development of science has resulted in the preparation of many Alloys such as steel, Brass, and Bronze which possess better qualities and strength than that of a single mental.

Uses:- Minerals are mainly used as :

  1. For a development of industrial plants and machinery.
  2. Coal, Lignite, and Uranium are used for generation of energy.
  3. Used in defense systems weapons and ornaments.
  4. Used in the communication system like cables and telephone wires.
  5. Gold, silver, platinum, diamond are used as jewelry.
  6. Silver is used in photography, electronics.
  7. Minerals are used in the form of fertilizers and many fungicides in agriculture.

Effects of extraction of mineral resources:- Extraction of mineral resources from the earth is called mining or quarrying. Mining of minerals, coal, and petroleum from the soil results in the damage to the natural texture and composition thereby bringing a major ecological change of nature.

Effects of Mining in India:-

  1. People residing near the (Uranium mine), Jharkhand are exposed to nuclear hazards.
  2. Contamination of high sulfur in the groundwater is taken place in North Eastern Coal Fields (Assam).
  3. Impurities of Kudremukh Iron ore in Karnataka, released into the river, cause river pollution.
  4. Health Hazards in mines due to the appearance of diseases black lung disease, asbestosis etc.
  5. The disappearance of vegetation.

Energy Resources:-

Energy is the capacity to do work. It can neither be created nor destroyed but can be converted from one form to another. The sun is inexpensive and unlimited, therefore ideal source of energy. Besides energy from the sun (solar energy) can also be obtained from different resources such as fossil fuels, biomass, biogas, nuclear power, hydroelectricity, wind energy, tidal energy and geothermal energy.

Depending on the source energy can be broadly classified into two types. They are:

1) Renewable Energy (OR) Non-exhaustible source of Energy.

2) Non-Renewable Energy (OR) Exhaustible source of energy.

1) Renewable Energy sources:-

Renewable or Non-exhaustible of energy is those that are present in nature and are continuously produced, irrespective of human activity. Solar, wind, tidal, geothermal and biogas energy are examples of renewable resources of energy.

  1. Wind Energy:-                                                                                                                                                     The wind power is utilized to generate electricity. The motion of air relative to the surface of the earth is wind energy. In India, many sites have been identified which are suitable for installing wind generators. Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, and Maharashtra or other sites were wind energy is abundant. Wind is a free and renewable resources and wind plants emit no greenhouse gases or air pollutants.
  2. Hydropower:-                                                                                                                                                            Hydropower generation is based on water motion. Nearly 25% of the World’s electricity comes from Hydel power. Asia has more than 1/4 of the World’s potential hydropower sources, and 45% of electricity comes from hydropower. The big hydropower projects are environmentally unsound because their water reservoirs submerge large areas of forests and agricultural lands. Besides, they displace thousands of people from their traditional homes. The Indian rivers are snow-fed and monsoon fed with continuous flows. Nearly 10,000 MW of power has been identified in the country Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh have highest hydropower potential in the country.
  3. Solar Energy:- It the energy derived from the sun solar energy may be used for heating and for generating power. Geographically India is favoured with high solar radiation throughout the year. The main advantages of solar energy are a) The source is inexhaustible b) It can be produced locally from a few watts to few megawatts. c) It produces no gases or noise d) Its modular nature enables to dismantle and to install at a different site. In solar photovoltaic, the solar light is directly converted into electricity using a device called solar cell. The solar electric power is used in many applications, lighting, water pumping, communications and warning systems.
  4. Biomass Energy:- All types of biological substances like plant products (wood, crop, algae and aquatic plants), their residues (straw, husk, sawdust, cow dung; animal soil are collectively known as biomass. Biomass is used as a source of energy in many parts of the world. The burning of the biomass produces heat energy known as bioenergy. It is obtained through the oxidation of biomass. The residue left after the burning of the biomass is used as manure in agriculture fields. Burning one kilo of wood produces about 4,000 to 5,000 of heat.                                                                                                Biogas:- Biogas is a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and Hydrogen and Hydrogen-Sulphide, the major constituent being methane. Biogas is produced by anaerobic degradation of animal wastes in the presence of water. It is a non-polluting, clean, low-cost fuel and no storage problem.
  5. Hydrogen Power:- Hydrogen is a clean, versatile and easy-to-use energy carrier. It can be used to generate electricity to power industry to fuel automobiles, to fly aircraft and to run home appliances. The burning of hydrogen produces no gases nor pollute the atmosphere. Hydrogen can be produced by a simple process of electrolysis. It can be produced by solar, wind and geothermal power plants located in distant remote places and stored in pressurized tanks or as the cryogenic liquid or in metal hydrides. Fuel cells of higher capacity are used to generate electricity to power buildings and complexes. Hydrogen is likely to be the future energy of source and pave the path to a sustainable energy economy.
  6. Geothermal Energy:- The energy from hot rocks present inside the earth is called geothermal energy. In places like Kullu (Himachal Pradesh) and Sohna (Haryana). hot water comes out from the soil. Hot water coming out with pressure can be used to run turbines of a generator to produce electricity.

2) Non-Renewable Resources:-

Non-renewable resources are fuels such as coal and petroleum which are available in limited quantities and cannot be replaced. They are not replaced by nature if exhausted.

  1. Coal:- Due to its high abundance and easy availability, coal is the most widely used fossil fuel. It is a solid fossil fuel formed by partial decomposition of plants deposited in layers at varying depths. Depending upon the depth, pressure, and quality of plant materials, the quality of coal varies. Depending on the carbon content coal has different grades. 
  • Lignite Coal:- It is the lowest grade of coal and is also known as brown coal. It contains about 70% carbon and 27% volatile materials.                                     
  • Bituminous Coal:- It is the widely used solid fuel all over the World. It contains 75 to 85 percent of carbon. It is also known as soft coal.                         
  • Anthracite Coal:- This is the best quality of coal with 95% carbon content and 5% volatile matter. It produces 6,000 to 7,000 Kcal of heat per kilogram. The high cost and less availability have restricted the use of this good quality coal. Coal is used mainly for cooking and heating purposes. It is used as a fuel for steam power plants and for running locomotive engines and industries. It is also used for the generation of electricity in thermal power plants. Coal can be transformed into gas, liquid or low sulfur, low-ash solid fuels and used as a substitute for petroleum

 2. Petroleum:- Petroleum is obtained by refining crude oil. It is a mineral oil found between the rocks under the earth’s surface. It is mostly covered with compressed natural gas. It is extracted from crude oil by the process of fractional distillation. Petroleum is a cleaner fuel, easier to transport and use. The burning of fossil fuels like petrol, diesel, kerosene etc., also gives energy but it produces greenhouse gases causing the greenhouse effect and global warming.

3. LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas):- Petroleum gas is converted into liquid under pressure to form LPG, it is used as household gas. It is odorless, but the LPG in our domestic gas cylinders gives a foul smell due to ethyl mercaptan to defect any leakage.

  1. Natural Gas:- It is mainly composed of methane with small quantities of propane and ethane. It can be used as a energy source and also an industrial raw material in the Petro Chemical industry.
  2. CNG (Compressed Natural Gas):- It is used to run vehicles, to reduce air pollution it is widely used in Delhi and soon in other parts of the country.
  3. SNG (Synthetic Natural Gas):- It is prepared by combination of carbon monoxide and Hydrogen. Low quality coal is converts into synthetic gas.
  4. Nuclear Energy:- The energy produced from radioactive material is called nuclear energy. Small amount of radioactive substances produce large amount of energy by nuclear reactions. This energy is used for the production of electricity for running submarines, space crafts etc. The handling of nuclear material, manufacturer, extraction, transport of nuclear materials is highly risky and polluting. The energy produced from nuclear from nuclear plants is cheaper in post.

Massive Diaster in Kerala-Red Alert Zone

The Malabar coast of India, southwestern State formed on 1st November 1956 where the Malayalam language is widely spoken. Karnataka on the north, Tamil Nadu on east & south and Lakshadweep sea to the east. As per 2011 census, 33,387,677 inhabitants live in Kerala which stands in a 13th largest populated state in India.

Kerala was divided into 14 Revenue districts. Rice is the staple crop and Kollam one of the districts of Kerala is the major exports for Cashews. Nearly 120-140 days were declared as rainy days per year in Kerala as influenced by Seasonal Rains. This year, the Second week of August have become greatest sin for people in Kerala due to heavy Rainfall and Overflow of water. It reached the Red Alert since the second week of August yet, the climate hasn’t stepped back. This monsoon caused sufferings to people over 2,000 scorers. Starting from August 7th a massive disaster has been taking control for past 10 days and it has been a Worst Deluge in the century.
Rapid Action Force (RAF) has been rescuing the people who struck in the floods. Over 1300 life jackets, 371 lifebuoys, 1000 raincoats, 1300 gumboots, 1200 ready to eat the meal,25 motorized boats, 9 non-motorized boats were sent on behalf of them. 38 Helicopters have been sent to the dreadful areas and people were being saved by Trained Army soldiers. Though the Airlifting is a dreadful job, soldiers were taking as a challenge and saving people, also a situation made everyone to cry that A Pregnant woman was airlifted from her partially submerged house near chengamanad on Friday afternoon. On Friday over 80,000 people were rescued and evacuated. 2000 relief camps gave shelter to 3 lakh people. The worst affected districts are PATHANAMTHITTA, ALAPPUZHA, ERNAKULAM, and THRISSUR.

Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi who has visited Kerala enquired the status about floods and people and discussed the situation and consequences with the chief minister of Kerala Mr. Pinarayi Vijayan.
Many people across the country were donating funds to save Kerala.
Kollywood actor Thalapathy Vijay gave 14 cores to Kerala and several actors, politicians were followed by. Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states also announced A specific amount and many Thinks like Food, clothing to the Flood affected persons. Due to this disaster Lakhs of people Lost their houses, Nearly 2000 crores of rupees is needed for immediate assistance. Although the Food was dropping by helicopters and Special trains were carrying food and water supplies to people, the Telecommunications has become worse and it is a disruption.

A woman showed her humanity and love towards other living organisms in Kerala. When she was asked to get on a boat she refused to travel unless her dogs were allowed to carry with her. Later the women were allowed to carry her dogs with her.

A huge loss to the government as the roads, Bridges were been collapsed and the transportation has become Worse. Nearly 357 people have died which made the whole country to shed tears.
Kerala is the state which stands in 1st position with 93. 91 literacy rate. It is known that women of Kerala show hospitality towards others, as they were more involved in medical education. Kerala is well known for Ayurvedic and medicines. Many dreadful diseases and nerve problems were cured by Ayurvedic medicines.

Models of Electronic Commerce

Electronic Data Interchange

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EDI Example:-


Consider a moment to look at an example that highlights some of the difference between traditional paper document transactions and Electronic Data Interchange. One of the first places that many businesses implement EDI is in the exchange of a purchase order (PO). In the traditional method of processing a purchase order, a buyer or purchasing agent will go through a fairly standard procedure to create a purchase order, consisting of these steps:

  1. A buyer reviews data from an inventory or planning system.
  2. The buyer enters data into a screen in the purchasing system to create a PO.
  3. The buyer waits for the PO to be printed, usually on a special form.
  4. After the PO is printed, the buyer mails it to the vendor.
  5. The vendor receives the purchase order and posts it in their order entry system.
  6. The buyer calls the vendor periodically to determine if the PO has been received and processed.

When you add up the internal processing time required by the sender and receiver and then add a couple of days in the mail, the process normally takes between three and five days.

This assumes first that both the sender and receiver handled the PO expeditiously, and that at every point along the way there are no errors in transcribing data from a form to a system.

The EDI alternative now considers the same document exchange when a company places its purchase its purchase orders electronically using EDI;

  1. The buyers’ reviews the data and creates the purchase order, but does not print it.
  2. EDI software creates electronic versions of the PO and updates the system immediately upon receipt.
  3. The vendor’s order entry system receives the PO and updates the system immediately upon receipt.
  4. The vendor’s order entry system crease an acknowledgment and transmits it back to the sender to confirm receipt.

The fairly simple example illustrates just one of the many ways that businesses can profit by the implementation of Electronic Data Interchange.

Benefits/Advantages of EDI;-


  1. Shortened Ordering Time: Paper orders have to be printed, enveloped and sent out by the customer’s post room, passed through the postal service, received by the supplier’s post room and input to the supplier’s order processing system. To achieve all this, reliably, in under three days would be to do very well. EDI orders are sent straight into the network and the only delay is how often the supplier retrieves messages from the system. Orders can be in the supplier’s system within a day, or if there is urgency the messages can be retrieved more frequently, for example, every hour.
  2. Cost Cutting: The use of EDI can cut costs. These include the costs of stationery and postage but these will probably be fully matched by the costs of running the EDI service. The principal saving from the use of the EDI is the potential to save staff costs.
  3. Elimination of Errors: Keying any information into a computer system is a source of errors and keying paper orders into the order processing system is no exception. EDI eliminates the source of errors. On the downside, there is no order entry clerk who might have spotted errors made by the customer the customer will get what the customer asked for.
  4. Fast Response: With paper orders, it would be several days before the customer was informed of any supply difficulty can be informed straightaway giving time for an alternative product to he ordered or an alternative supplier to be used.
  5. Accurate Invoicing: Just like orders, invoices can be sent electronically. EDI invoices have similar advantages to EDI orders in saved time and avoided errors. However, the major advantages in EDI invoice order and cleared for payment without the sort of queries that arise when paper invoices are matched to orders.
  6. EDI payment: Payment can also be made by EDI. The EDI payment. the system can also generate and EDI payment advised that can be electronically matched against the relevant invoices, again avoiding query and delay.
  7. Reduced Stock Holding: The ability to order regularly and quickly reduces the number of goods that need to be kept in a storeroom or warehouse at the shop or the factory.
  8. Cast Flow: Speeding up the trade cycle by getting invoices out quickly, and directly matched to the corresponding orders and delivers, can and should speed up payments and hence improve cash flow. Elimination of most invoice queries can be particularly significant in reducing delays in payments.
  9. Business Opportunities: There is a steady increase in the number of customers, particularly large, powerful customers that will only trade with suppliers that do business via EDI.
  10. Customer Lock-In: An established EDI system should be of considerable advantage to both customer and supplier. Switching to a new supplier requires that the electronic trading system and trading system to a new supplier requires that the electronic trading system and trading relationship be redeveloped, a problem to be avoided if a switch of the supplier is not essential.

Limitations/Disadvantages of EDI:

  1. Operating Procedures: Since EDI is a structured way of working, companies change operating procedures.
  2. Production and Purchasing Decision: Responsibilities may have to be changed during the introduction of the EDI system. Unless this system and the links with other systems are managed well, it is not possible for the data processing department to become involved in production and purchasing decisions.
  3. Transparent: Less transparent than paper-based systems.
  4. Flexibility: Certain EDI systems are highly flexible, others are very simple to implement.
  5. High Costs: Applications are costing o develop and operate; especially new entrants find this more difficult to have EDI.
  6. Limited Accessibility: It does not allow consumers to communicate or transact with vendors in an easy way.
  7. Rigid Requirements: Needs highly structured protocols, previously established arrangement, unique proprietary bilateral information exchange.
  8. Trading Partners involvement: If involves high dependence on the participation of trading partners. It is extremely difficult to get a high level of supplier compliance. EDI will be meaningless if your trading partner didn’t get involve using EDI system effectively.
  9. Difficult to agree on standards used: Even though there are widely accepted and widely used standards, these are no ways to force trading partners to accept these standards. Co-operation between trading partners is needed in order to develop a common rule to avoid differ in interpretation.
  10. Deviation of Management: Concentration of control of EDI causes management to rely more heavily on computer systems and places control in the hands of fewer individuals, potentially increasing risk.
  11. Data Processing, Application, and Communications Errors: Errors in computer processing and communications system may result in the transmission of incorrect trading information or the reporting of inaccurate information to management losses to trading partners.
  12. Reliance on third parties: The organization will become more dependent on third parties to ensure security over transactions and continuity of processing.
  13. Security Threats: EDI may share the same kinds of security threats associated with any electronic data communications and other e-commerce applications. A potential number of risks include the following:
  • Confidential information could be exposed to u authorized third parties or competitor.
  • The third-part staff could introduce invalid and unauthorized transactions.

The Communication Approach of EDI:-

The first technical element of the EDI system is the EDI software. It is a complete suite of software for creating, transmitting, receiving, managing and tracking EDI documents. It contains the tools needed to fine-tune EDI invoicing from the EDI document editing, to document review, to document selection.

The system design is comprehensive and can convert invoices, returns, change notice, statements, purchase orders, and title catalogs into the EDI format. If Pens and Things are to send an order from its production control system to packaging solutions it needs to code that order into the agreed EDI standard and ‘squirt’ it into the chosen VADS (Value Added Data Services). To pick up the order at the other end, packaging solutions have a similar need to extract the data from the network and to decode the data from EDI message into its order processing system.

The coding/decoding of EDI messages and interfacing with VADS is normally achieved using EDI software as shown in the figure;


Sending an Order Using EDI Software: Technically EDI comes down to imports/exports to/from your system and some data communication. It is good practice to keep this imports/export as simple as possible and to concentrate on the impact of EDI on your system and organization. You will want one import/export in your system. You do not want to handle all the EDI details in the import/export module like you do not want to handle the logic of printer drivers in your application.

An organization that using EDI:

  1. Wal-Mart: An EDI link between Wal-Mart and one of its suppliers, Seminole Manufacturing Co. cut the delivery time of Seminole slacks by 50%. This resulted in a 31% sales increase of these slacks in the first 9 months after the link was established.
  2. General Motors: General Motors have integrated EDI electronic funds transfer at 30% of its assembly plants. Shipping receipts are sent electronically from the GM plant to an Electronic Data System computer center where they are matched against electronic invoice and purchase order. Suppliers group the shipping receipts, and one payment orders. Suppliers group the shipping receipts, and one payment is made. This single payment may represent dozens of different shipments to different plants. These payments are also performed electronically via Electronic Funds Transfers.
  3. JC Penney: Sales of Stafford suits jumped 59% after JC Penny to quickly replenish stock fast enough to meet demand while cutting their overall inventory of suits by 20%.
  4. Rockwell: Rockwell, a major automotive supplier received design change notifications directly from the automakers via EDI. Rockwell has been able to react faster to their inventory of finished goods. Parts now bypass their warehouse and go directly from their production lines to their shipping docks.
  5. Textile Industry: The Textile industry is beginning to fight back against Asian competition with EDI. While the US textile industry is hard-pressed to compete on a cost basis. EDI is helping them provide superior service. Service is making it easier and faster to do business with a US supplier.
  6. US Customs: US Customs accepts electronic customs documentation, in advance of goods shipments. This reduces port delay and provides a competitive advantage for those ports of entry that support EDI.
  7. Market Outlook: The Yankee Group, a Boston based market research group, estimates that 4/5 of all business transactions will be electronic by 2010. The EDI survey, published by input, found that 70% of Fortune 1000 sized businesses; universities and Public companies are currently using EDI. An additional 20% are planning EDI implementation.

Migration to Open EDI:-

It appears that the Internet and the transition to what is called by some Open EDI will change the economics of EDI by reducing setup and rollout costs. To extend that interoperability of networks increases the usability of EDI by making more potential trading partners available and accelerates the number of companies currently using EDI, generally through the services of either private networks or VANs. This presents three migration paths to users:

  • A nonuser becoming a private network/VAN user. This is the most common migration when companies are considering the additional use of EDI. Up to this time, this migration path has been the only route open to users.
  • A current EDI user who wishes to make a transition to Open EDI.
  • A non-EDI user who can make a direct transition to Open EDI.

Migration from manual systems to Open EDI offers opportunities to firms that are not part of established EDI networks and that wish to participate in the market. Depending on how Open EDI is defined, this third category of migration could turn out to be the most significant stimulus, as millions of small and medium-sized business and their customers begin to participate in electronic commerce via the Internet.

There are several ways to set up EDI:

  • A dedicated PC link to the EDI networks.
  • A group of computers via modems linking to the EDI network.
  • A dedicated server link to the EDI network.
  • Communication link could be:
  • Dial-up phone line (such as ISDN line or switched digital services)
  • A dedicated link to the network’s local hub point.

Required software:

  • Application software
  • Message translator –
  • Routing manager –
  • Communication handler Migration to Open EDI: The Internet and the transition to open EDI will change the economics of EDI by reducing setup and rollout costs.

Migration groups:

  • A nonuser becoming a private network/VAN user.
  • A current EDI user who wishes to make a transition to Open EDI.
  • A non-EDI user who can make a direct transition to Open EDI.
  • EDI transactions across the Internet in two ways: Email and FTP

The benefits:

  • Reduction of the cost of transferring EDI messages
  • Increase the performance
  • Supporting E-Commerce
  • Increase the interoperability of networks increasing the usability of EDI.

The Age of Pre-historic Culture

The Age of Pre-historic Culture:-

At very ancient period based on scripts history divided into 2 types. They are

1. prehistoric and 2. historic.
Prehistoric means people have no script and history cannot be studied.
Historic means people have script and history can study.
Prehistoric culture consists of 4 cultures.
They are- paleolithic culture, Mesolithic culture, Neolithic culture, Chalcolithic culture

1. Paleolithic culture:-

From earliest to 10,000BC. Maximum people lived in this culture. There is no development of the brain for people. Paleo means old and lithic means stone.
Hand axes, blades, cleavers, burin, flakes, choppers, scrapers were the tools used. Quartzite is a typical rock or stone used to make these tools hence these men were called Quartzite men.
First paleolithic site discovered in India was found at Pallavaram near Chennai by British archeologist named Robert Bruce Foote in 1863.
Paleolithic sites were found everywhere in India expect alluvial parts of Gangs and Indus.
Food hunting is done by men and gathering done by women.
People lived in bands and nomadic life because of economic strength. The Paleolithic period comes or falls in Pleistocene age or ice age.

Paleolithic Age:-

Man during this period used tools of unpolished, undressed rough stories & lived in a cave & rock shelters. Paleolithic Age in India has been divided into 3 phases during to the nature of stone tools used by the people & also according to the nature of change in the climate.

1. The Early Age:-

The Early Age Covers the greater part of the ice age. Its characteristic tools are hand axes, Cleavers, Choppers. Such tools have been found in soon & Sohan river valley (now in Pakistan) & in the Belan Valley in the Mirzapur district of U.P. Climate become less humid.

2. Middle Paleolithic Phase:-

Middle Paleolithic Phase is characterized by the use of stone tools made of flakes mainly Scrapers, borers & blade-like tools. Sites are found in the valleys of soon Narmada & Tungabhadra rivers. During this phase, Pithecanthropus/Homoerectus evolved.

3. Upper Paleolithic Phase:-

Upper Paleolithic Phase climate become warm & less humid. This stage is marked by burins & Scrapers. Such tools have been found in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Bhopal & Chhota Nagpur Plateau.

  • The old stone Age sites are widely found in various parts of the Indian Subcontinent & are generally located near water Sources.
  • Food was obtained by hunting animals & gathering edible plants & tubers, Therefore, these people are called as the hunter-gatherers.
  • Hunting of large animals would have required the combined effort of a group of people with large stone axes. Their way to life became modified with the passage of time Since they made attempts to domesticate animal make crude pots & grow some plants.
  • A few old stone Age paintings have also been found on rocks at Bhimbetka in MP & grow some plants.
  • Some famous sites of old stone Age in India are:-

a) Soon Valley & Potwar Plateau on Northwest India. b) Siwalik hills on north India. c) Bhimbetka in MP. d) Adamgarh hill in Narmada valley. e) Kurnool in AP. f) Attirampakkam near Chennai.

  • At Chopani- Mando in the Belan Valley of the Vindhyas & the middle part of the Narmada Valley a Sequence of occupation from all the 3 stages of the Paleolithic to the Neolithic stage have been found in Sequence. Chopani Mando is an imp site where fossil animal bones have been found.
  • The son & the adjacent Belan Valley (Mirzapur, UP) provide a Sequence of artifacts from lower Paleolithic to Neolithic.

2. Mesolithic culture:-

10,000BC to 4000BC
Around 10000BC means at the end of the paleolithic age, there were two developments.
1.The emergence of Homosapiens.
2.End of a Pleistocene age.
Developments of Mesolithic culture.
1.Domestication of animals.
2.The invention of pottery.
Chopani Mando in UP is a Mesolithic site where first pottery made in India.
3.Housing building activity.
Sarai Nahar Rai in UP is the first houses built in India
4.used small tools know as Microliths leads to safe hunting. Size is not more than 5cm.
Microliths- pointed, crescentic blades, scrapers tools were used.
Meso means middle and lithic means stone

Mesolithic Age:-

  • Various Mesolithic sites are found in the Chhota Nagpur region, Central India & also South of the Krishna River.
  • Mesolithic remains are found in Sanghani in Gujarat, Azamgarh in MP, Some places of Rajasthan, UP & Bihar.
  • Painting & engravings found at the rock shelters give an idea about the Social life & economic activities of Mesolithic people. The hunting-gathering pattern of life continued during this period.
  • However, there seems to have been a shift from big animal hunting to Small animal hunting & fishing. The use of bow & arrow also began.
  • Also, there began a tendency to Settle for longer periods in an area. Therefore domestication of animals, horticulture & primitive cultivation started.
  • The last phase of this age saw the beginning of plain cultivation. Animal bones are found in these sites & these include the dog, deer, boar & ostrich.
  • Occasionally, burials of the dead along with Same microliths & shells seem to have been practiced.

3. Neolithic culture:-

7000BC to 1000BC
Agriculture is the predominant feature.
Polishing of stone tools.
Food hunting to food prediction.
Neo means new and lithic means stone

1. North West site:-

Mehrgarh situated in Baluchistan, a province of Pakistan.
Earliest in India dated back to 7000BC.
Wheat, barley, cotton, were cultivated by Mehrgarh’s people. Earliest Neolithic people in India cultivate cotton in the world. First pottery’s wheel found in Mehrgarh. They painted and decorated also.

2. In Gangs basin:-

Began at 5000BC.
Koldihwa in UP is Neolithic site dated back to 5000BC. Earliest people in the world to cultivate rice

3. Kashmir:-

Agriculture began at 2500BC. Gufkral in Jammu and Burzahom in Kashmir were Neolithic sites.
Houses built by people are different called pit-dwellings.
Chirand in Bihar, Belan valley in UP, several places of Deccan.

4.south India:-

Agriculture began at 2000BC.ragi and horse gram was cultivated.
Nagarjuna konda in Andhra Pradesh,Utnur in Telangana,Maski,Tekkelakota,Piklihal,Brahmagiri, Hallur in Karnataka,Piyanpalli in Tamilnadu were Neolithic sites.

5.North Eastern states:-

Agriculture began at 1000BC due to thick forest.
Garo hills in Assam and Meghalaya were the Neolithic sites.
Neolithic people used clothes made of cotton and wool.

Neolithic Age:-

  • Chirand & Senuwar in Bihar -> Know for remarkable bone tools.
  • Amri, Kotdiji.
  • Cultivation of plants & domestication of animals led to the emergence of village communities based on Sedentary life.
  • Great improvement in the technology of making tools & other equipment.
  • Mud brick houses were built instead of grass huts.
  • Knew about the fire.
  • Large urns were used as coffins for the burial of the dead.

4.Chalcolithic culture:-

Chalco means copper and lithic means stone. A time period of this culture is 3000 to 700BC. Important sites of this culture are khetri mines in Rajasthan. Ahar, Timbavati, Gulind in Rajasthan.Malwa, Kayata, Eran, Navolatoli in western Madhya Pradesh.Jorwe, Chandoli, Inamgoan, Daimabad in Maharashtra. Nearly 2000 sites are in Maharashtra.

Archaeology and History


Study of the past through material remains is known as archaeology

Sources of Archaeology:-

1. Inscription:- Permanent script written on hard surface.

Base on content of inscriptions into 3 types.

                     1. Prashasti/Eulogy:- Where king is praised. (Glory/victory). These are placed at public.

                     2. Rajajnas:- Where royal orders are placed for public by kings Rajajanas or edicts.

                      3. Dana shasanas:- Where gifts given to temple written.

                                    A. Public:- Gifts to temple by kings.

                                     B. Private:- Gifts to temple by people.

Study of Inscriptions -> Epigraphy.

2. Coins: – Social, economic, Political, religious information. at particular period.

Study of coins -> Numismatics.

3. Monuments & Sculptures:- study of M&S -> Iconography.

Sanctum Sanctorom -> Where Gold is placed.

4. Excavated material:– We obtained pottery, textiles, tools, weapons, food grains, houses etc.

Radio carbon (C14) dating method used by archaeologist to know the age of Organic materials like food grains, bones, piece of tree etc.

Invented by American Libby, Physics professor.


Study of the past through records or literature is known as history

sources of history
1. Religious literature:-
This is earliest literature and indigenous literature.
This is of 3 types. They are
A. Hindu literature- Rig Veda is the first book in India also world written at 1500 BC
B. Buddist literature
C. Jain literature-
Religious literature began at 1500 BC

2. secular literature:-
It is non religious and indigenous literature.
It was began at 500 BC.
Astadhyayi is the first book in secular literature was written by Panini. It contains 8 chapters. It is also a first book on grammar.

3.Foreign accounts:-
Foreign accounts is non-indigenous because information provided by foreigners is impartial,trust,geniue.This is the reason why it is so special. This is divided into 4 types they are
A. Greek
B. Chinese
C. Latin
D. Arab