The overview of ‘GST’ ?

The idea of national GST was first mooted by Kellar Task Force in 2004. A Task Force was formed under the chairmanship of Sri Vijay Kelkar on Implementation of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act. The Kellar committee submitted recommended fully integrated ‘GST’ on a national basis.

The introduction of GST would be one significant step in the direction of the Unified Indirect Taxation scheme. Subsuming several central and state taxes into a single tax would mitigate cascading or double taxation, facilitating a common national market. The passage of constitutional Amendment Bill by the Parliament in August 2016 tossed a major challenge on the Indian Economy. This constitutional amendment permits, for the first time since independence in 1947, both the Union Government and the states to levy a tax on both goods and services simultaneously, substantially widening the tax base. GST Constitution Amendment Bill became law of the land after receiving presidential assent on September 8, 2016. Taking into consideration the majority of the concerns raised by the Trade and industry, the Government in November 2016 released the revised version of the Model GST Law along with Draft GST Compensation Bill.

GST is commonly described as an “Indirect broad-based consumption tax”. GST is indirect because it is levied on goods, services, and related activities, rather than directly on personal income. It is broad-based because it is applicable to a wide range of transactions, with only limited exceptions. In the context of India, GST integrates the Union Excise duties, Service Tax and State VAT and some other Indirect Taxes into a single levy.

GST will facilitate seamless credit across the entire supply chain and across all states under a common tax base. By this system, the taxation, the cascading impact or the hidden tax costs on the consumers are mitigated and consumers buy goods and services at lower prices For instance when an Automobile manufacturing company makes a vehicle, the Central Government charges an excise duty on them as they leave factors. Whereas on the lower end of the supply chain i. e., at the Retail level, V A T is charged, without giving credit of the excise duty levied earlier. But in the GST system, both Central and State Taxes will be collected at the point of the scale. Both components (the central and state GST) will be charged on the manufacturing cost. It will also result in cost competitiveness of goods and services in the global market with reduced transaction costs for the taxpayers through simplified tax compliance. On economy/revenue front, it will result in increased tax collection due to wider tax before and better conformity.

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Electronic Commerce Environment and Opportunities (The Electronic Commerce Environment)

The Electronic Commerce Environment


The briefly electronic commerce environment?

1. The virtual corporation:-

Electronic commerce goes hand in hand with changes that are occurring in corporations. The 1990s have seen the rise of a new form of industrial organization- the networked firm, sometimes known as the virtual organization.

Electronic commerce is the essence of the virtual corporation, it allows the organization to leverage information and communication resources with all its constituencies, including employees, customers, bankers, government agencies, suppliers, advertisement agencies and the public. When an organization does business electronically, it can do business from anywhere and go anywhere, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This transforms a company into a virtual organization because, electronically, it is located wherever employees, suppliers, and customers need to conduct business and without time boundaries.

2. The electronic marketers:-

Electronic marketers are defined as companies that market their products and services to other businesses or consumers through the private online network, commercial on-line services such American Online (AOL); the Internet, CD-ROMs, telecommunications-enhanced CD-ROMs, interactive television and WebTV, and floppy disk media. These marketers are faced with the challenge of creating a critical mass of customers for their CD-ROM, Internet, or online electronic marketplace.

3. The catalyst of electronic and web commerce:-

The Internet is an aggregation of networks connecting computers which are seen as one network by the user. There have really been no breakthroughs on the Internet of late. It relies on many protocols that are more than a decade old. What is new is the ability of the ensemble of a customer’s browsers, local networks, backbone networks, and web servers to interwork harmoniously. This enables information to flow freely and easily, at the click of a mouse. The WWW is one of the more well-known applications of the Internet to appear of late.

4. Available communication apparatus:-

There are five relevant elements:

  • Organization’s own enterprise network which houses appropriate information, usually beyond the organization’s firewall apparatuses.
  • The public-switched telephone network. This is generally constituted of Located Exchange Carriers (LECs) and Competitive LECs (CLECs) at the local level and a multitude of Interexchange Carriers (IXCs) at the national backbone level.
  • The Internet. This consist of ISPs and NSPs and provides a large inter-enterprise infrastructure.
  • On-line networks such as America Online, which utilize the own communication and information facilities. They can be accessed by dial-up or private lines and now have access to the Internet.
  • Specialized industry networks, such as those to support EDI.

Advantages of E-Commerce:-

1. 24×7 Operation:-

Round the clock operation is an expensive proposition in the ‘brick-and-mortar’ world, while it is natural in the ‘click-and-conquer’ world.

2. Global Reach:-

The net being inherently global, reaching global customers is relatively easy on the net compared to the world of bricks.

3. Cost of acquiring, serving and retaining customers:-

It is relatively cheaper to acquire new customers over the net, thanks to 24×7 operations and it’s global reach. Through innovative tools of push technology, it is also possible to retain customer’s loyalty with minimal investments.

4. Disintermediation:-

Using the Internet, one can directly approach the customers and suppliers, cutting down on the number of levels and in the process, cutting down the costs.

5. Improved customer service to year clients:-

It results in higher satisfaction and more scales.

6. Power to provide the ‘best of both the worlds’:-

It benefits the traditional business side-by-side with the Internet tools.

7. A technology-based customer interface:-

Customers conduct transactions either face to face over the phone with store clerks, account managers or another individual. The customer interface in the electronic environment is a ‘screen-to-face’ interaction. This includes PC based monitors, ATMs, PDAs or other electronic devices.

8. The customer controls the interaction:-

The customer controls the search process, the time spent on various sites, the degree of price/product comparison, the people with whom he or she comes in contact, and the decision to buy. In a face to face interchange. the control can rest with either the buyer/seller or the community member.

9. Network economics:-

A key characteristic of networks economic is positive feedback, that is, as the installed Base grows, more and more users are likely to adopt the technology because of the installed base. Many commercial wares in the digital economy revolve around setting a standard because of rising switching costs.

Disadvantages of E-Commerce:-

The disadvantage/limitations of e-commerce can be divided into two categories.

1. Technical Limitations.

2. Non-Technical Limitations.

1. Technical Limitations:-

  • Lack of Security:- The initial cost to develop e-commerce website in-house is very high. This may need a high cost or be hiring qualified staff to maintain and update the e-commerce website.
  • Low Bandwidth:- In many countries, the network might cause an issue because of low bandwidth.
  • Difficulty in Integrating E-Commerce:- It is difficult to integrate e-commerce software or website with some existing applications and databases. Vendors need special web servers to deal with integration problem in addition to network servers.
  • Not All Customers have Access to Internet:- Internet access is not universally available so much of the effort made does not actually reach the consumer. Many potential customers that are living in the remote village have not Internet access facility.

2. Non-Technical Limitations:-

  • Initial Cost:- The initial cost to develop e-commerce website in-house is very high. This may need a high cost or be hiring qualified staff to maintain and update the e-commerce website.
  • Security and privacy:- The major issues in online businesses are security and privacy. Customers feel hesitant to disclose credit card numbers over the Internet because of security problems such as theft of credit card number.
  • Customer Relations Problems:- Organization needs loyal customers to run their online business for a long time. Online businesses cannot continue without loyal customers in today’s competition.
  • Lack of Trust and User Resistance:- Face-to-face contact and paper transactions are important in business deals and transactions since it is related to trust. So for any consumer switching from physical to online stores is difficult.
  • Lack of Touch and Feel:- consumers may want to touch and feel a product before purchasing online. Online businesses do not provide the touch and feel experience to the consumer on items such as clothes, shoes etc.
  • Corporate Vulnerability:- Online businesses have high availability of information related to product, price, catalogs, and others. This information makes websites vulnerable to access by competition. This process of extracting business intelligence from competitor’s web pages is called Web farming.
  • Legal Issues:- When buyers and sellers do not know each other, there is a chance of fraud over the Internet. Hence there are may legal problems related to e-commerce. Se common legal issues encountered in e-commerce are:

a) Software and Copyright Violations.

b) Credit Card Fraud and Stolen Identities.

c) Illegal Bargains and Criminal Law.

Applications of E-Commerce:-

1. Online Banking:-

Online banking allows customers of a financial institution to conduct financial transactions on a secure website operated by the institution, which can be a retail or virtual bank, credit union or building society. To access a financial institution’s online banking facility, a customer having personal Internet access must register with the institution for the service, and set up some password for customer Verification. The customer would go to the financial customers’ number and password. Then the customer can perform non-transactional tasks as well as transactional tasks through online banking.

2. Online Shopping:-

Online shopping is a form of electronic commerce which allows consumers to directly buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet using a web browser. Alternative web-store, online store, online storefront and virtual store.

3. Online Marketing:-

Online marketing uses the Internet to deliver promotional marketing messages to consumers. It includes email marketing, search engine marketing, social media marketing, many types of display advertising and mobile advertising.

4. Online Auctions:-

It offers the general public the opportunity to bid electronically on a wide of the asset. The auctions are completely web-enabled, allowing all registered participants to bid on a single item or multiple items within specified time frames. Online auctions remove the physical limitations of traditional auctions such as geography, presence, time, space and a small target audience.

5. Instant Messaging:-

Instant messaging is a set of communication technologies used for text-based communication between two of participants over the internet or other types of networks, this type of communication services enables you to create a kind of private chat room with another individual in order to communicate in real time over the Internet using text-based communication.

6. Newsgroups:-

A newsgroup is a type of online discussion forum. This is a continuous public discussion about a particular topic. You can join a newsgroup at any time to become part of a huge conversation between hundreds or even thousands of people. This is a source of both information and communication.

7. Online Publishing:-

Online publishing includes the publication of an online newsletter, online magazines and databases, electronic journal, brochures and other promotional materials such as ebooks.

8. Online office suites:-

An online office suite is a type of office suite offered by websites in the form of software as a service. They can be accessed online from any internet-enabled device running any operating system.

9. Teleconferencing:-

A teleconference is a telephone meeting among two or more participants involving technology more sophisticated than a simple two-way phone connection. It can be referred to as audio conferencing, telephone conferencing and phone conferencing. At its simplest, a teleconference can be the audio conference with one or both ends of the conference sharing a speakerphone.

10. Electronic Tickets:-

An electronic ticket is an electronic version of a regular paper ticket. However, an electronic ticket differs from a paper ticket, in that an e-ticket automatically is recorded in several computer databases when a reservation is confirmed. Airlines and ticketing systems have access to these databases.

The different security issues and approaches related to web commerce or e-commerce:-

Many of the concerns about electronic commerce developments, particularly over open.networks (e.g., the Internet), deal with the risks of possible fraud, security infractions, counterfeiting, and with consumer privacy issues.

Issues relate to:-

(1) Secure payments via electronic cash (e-cash).

(2) Confidentiality (encryption) and authentication of financial transactions; and

(3) General confidentiality in the transfer of any document.

1. Secure payments:-

E-cash can be thought of as the minting of electronic money or tokens. In electronic cash schemes, buyers and sellers trade electronic value tokens which are issued or backed by some third party, be it an establishes bank or a new (Internet-based) institution. The effects of a system failure in an electronic case scheme are much harder to anticipate; system failure could also occur through many means, not the least of which is insufficient funds (or paper money) to back up the new electronic money.

2. Secure transactions:-

Agreements on standard Internet payment systems were getting closer at press time. During 1996, IBM/MasterCard and Microsoft/Visa respectively agreed on a single industry standard for conducting credit card transactions over the Internet. The agreement was aimed at removing that had been the major obstacle in the emergence of large-scale electronic commerce applications for the Web. Such agreement resolves a long-standing struggle on standardized security technology. The issue has been which technology to use Microsoft’s Secure Transaction Technology (STT) or IBM’S SEPP; (Secure Electronic Transfer); based on earlier SEPP work.

The solution for achieving secure, cost-effective online transactions that will satisfy market demand is the development of a single, open industry specification.

3. Message transfer confidentiality and authentication:-

Two different protocols have been developed for enhanced Web security: Secure Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (S-HTTP) and the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).

  • Besides confidentiality there are also issues of authentication not only could a buyer masquerade for another buyer (in order to steal the payment instrument), but a fake Web-store merchant could put up a fraudulent storefront to steal payments (but never skip any goods).
  • Companies such as VeriSign provide an authentication function by acting as a certificate authority. They provide two types of certificate: ID Class 1 and ID Class 2.
  • S-HTTP is an extension of HTTP that provides a variety of security enhancements for the Web. Message protection is provided in three ways: signature, authentication, and encryption.
  • S-HTTP is flexible in that it allows each application to configure the level of security required. A transmission from client-to-server or server-to-client can be signed, encrypted, both or neither.
  • A secure HTTP message consists of a request or status line followed by an encapsulated content. Once the content has been decoded. It should either be another S-HTTP message, an HTTP message, or simple data.
  • Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a transport layer security technique that can be applied to HTTP as well as to other TCP/IP-based protocols. The SSL protocol is designed to provide privacy between two communicating applications, for example, a client and a server. SSL provides authentication, encryption, and data verification.
  • The SSL protocol is actually composed of two protocols. Layered on top of some reliable transport protocol, is the SSL record protocol. The SSL record protocol is used for encapsulation of all transmitted and received data, including the SSL handshake protocol, which is used to establish security parameters.

The advantage of the SSL protocol is that it is application-protocol-independent. A higher-level application protocol ( for example HTTP, FTP, and Talent) can run transparently on top of the SSL protocol.

The SSL protocol can negotiate an encryption algorithm and session key, as well as authenticate a server before the application protocol transmits or receives its first byte of data. all of the application protocol data is transmitted encrypted, ensuring privacy.

S-HTTP is more flexible than SSL in that an application can configure the level of security it needs.

Electronic Commerce Environment and Opportunities (1. Background)

What is E-Commerce/Web Commerce?

E-Commerce:

E-Commerce stands for Electronic Commerce. “E-Commerce” is the buying and selling of goods add services on the Internet, especially the World Wide Web. In practice, this term and newer term Business often used interchangeably.

Explain the history of E-Commerce?

History of E-Commerce:-

E-Commerce activities started in the 1970s with innovations such as the electronic fund transfers (EFT). However such applications were limited to large corporations, financial institutions and very few small daring business. Then came EDI, which expanded the scope from financial transactions to other types of transactions and allowed manufacturers, retailers, services etc, to join the race. This further expanded to many applications ranging from stock trading to travel reservation system. Initially, both EFT and EDI were carried out through private networks or virtual private network (VPNs). However with the commercialization of the Internet in the early 1990s and it’s rapid growth to millions of potential customers, the term electronic commerce was coined and E-Commerce applications expanded rapidly. The main reason for the rapid application was the development of networks, protocols, software, and specifications for e-commerce activities. Another reason was the increase in competition and business pressure, Since then there have been many innovations such as an advertisement to online auction houses to virtual reality experience.

The basic web/e-commerce concepts? Or The different types of e-commerce?

The several types of e-commerce models in use today are classified based on the nature of the interaction with players are:

1. Business-to-Consumer (B2C):

In B2C, businesses sell directly a diverse group of product and services to customers. In these cases, e-commerce supplements the traditional commerce by offering products and services through electronic channels. Wal-Mart Stores and the Gap are the examples of companies that are very active in B2C e-commerce.

2. Business-to-Business (B2B):-

B2B e-commerce holds electronic transactions between businesses. The Internet and reliance on all business upon other companies for supplies, utilities and services have enhanced the popularity of B2B e-commerce and made B2B the fastest growing segment within the e-commerce environment. In a B2B environment, purchase orders, invoices, inventory status, shipping logistics and business contracts handed directly through the network result in increased speed, reduced errors and cost savings.

3. Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) :-

Using C2C e-commerce that involves individuals sell directly to other consumers using the Internet and web technologies. Individuals sell a wide variety of services/products on the Web or through auction sites such as eBay.com and gittigidiyor.com through classified ads or by advertising.

4. Consumer-to-Business (C2B):-

C2B e-commerce that involves individuals selling to business may include a service/product that a consumer is willing to sell. Individuals offer certain prices for specific products/services. Companies such as pazaryerim.com and job shop. Com are examples of C2B.

5. Business-to-Government (B2G):-

The transactions between the business and government over the electronic network are termed as B2G. B2G e-commerce involves the use of the Internet for public procurement, licensing procedures, government-related formalities and filing of tax returns. For example, when Classic Shoes Ltd., submits the tax returns to the income tax department through the Internet, then it is B2G e-commerce.

the features of E-Commerce?

Features of E-Commerce:-

1. Ubiquity (Everywhere):-

E-Commerce is widespread, that is, it is available everywhere always. It widespread, that is, it is available everywhere always. It sets free market fr being restricted to a physical space and makes it possible to shop from the computer. The result is called a market space. For consumers, ubiquity cuts transaction costs for exploring products in the market. Consumers can acquire any information whenever they want, regardless of their location.

2. Global Reach:-

E-Commerce technologies enable a business to easily reach across geographic boundaries around the earth far more conveniently and effectively as compared to traditional commerce. Globally, companies with for e-commerce merchants is approximately equal to a size of the online population.

3. Universal Standards:-

Universal Standards are standards shared by all the nations around the world. These are technical standards of the Internet for conducting e-commerce. It gives all the ability to connect the Internet for conducting e-commerce. It gives all the ability to connect at the same level and it provides network externalities that will benefit everyone. Universal technical standards lower entry costs and minimal search costs.

4. Interactivity:-

E-Commerce technologies permit two-way communications between customer and sellers which makes it interactive. It proves as a significant feature of e-commerce technology over the commercial traditional technologies of the 20th century.

5. Information Density:-

Information density means total amount and quality of information available over the Internet to all market buyers and sellers. Internet vastly increases information density. Information density offers better quality information to consumer and merchants. E-commerce technologies increase the accuracy and timeliness of information. For example, flipkart.com store has a variety of products with prices.

6. Richness:-

Richness refers to be complexity and content of the message. Richness means all commercial activities and experience, conducted through a variety of messages. For example, text, pictures, videos, sound, links, SMS, etc.

7. Personalization:-

E-Commerce technology offers personalization. Personalization means designing marketing messages according to particular individuals by customizing it as per customer personal details like name, interests and past purchases record. Products or services can be modified or altered according to the user’s choice or past buying record.

Hindu Cultural Wedding

south-indian-wedding-traditions-3981

According to Hindu faith, marriages are made in heaven. If you are married once then the bond is supposed to last for 7 lifetimes. So it is observed that to be a turning point in every individual’s life. As he/she enters the Second most important phase of his/her life called the ‘Garhasthyaashram’.

Pre-Wedding Rituals :-

haldi

In India, mostly Hindu marriages are still arranged marriages. So it is necessary to done Pre-wedding ceremonies. Pre-wedding ceremonies mean finding a perfect match to his/her by bride or groom’s families. a perfect match can be found through a friend or relative or professional matchmaker or many matrimonial sites.

Even now, love marriages are also increasing. In these love marriages, the two families of the couple are to love marriages, the two families of the couple are to be introduced and agree with a Union.

In most communities in Hindu, There is a stress upon a horoscope matching before proceeding future arrangements in an arranged marriage. If the stars of girl and boy are in perfect harmony, then the marriage of the couple will confirm. Then the two families discuss the details of the marriage event. In Engagement ceremony, data is fixed when the wedding will take place and also data is announced to all relatives, friends in this ceremony.

In Engagement ceremony, there is an exchange of rings between the bride & groom. This may take place in some cultures. Now it becomes a trend also. But there is an ancient culture that is an exchange of gifts between two bride and groom families for acceptance and the wedding like few months because to celebrate grand. Ganesh puja, Mehendi, Sangeet, Haldi are few rituals.

ganesh-maatli-images.png

Ganesh Puja is held by bride and groom’s families because to remove all obstacles from the couple’s life path.

5-Beautiful-Pre-Wedding-Ceremonies-Steeped-In-Tradition-From-Across-India

Mehendi is mostly a North Indian tradition. In Mehendi, the paste of henna is applied on the bride’s and groom’s hands and also relatives. present other cultures like Bengalis and South Indians have also made Mehendi as a part in wedding fun. the filled ceremony where both the families perform song-dance routines and to know each other. This is known as the Sangeet ceremony. This is also a North India Culture but how all other cultures adopted this ceremony.

ceremony-pradesh-during-kakakr-moment-shoaib-ibrahim_55ac48c6-16d5-11e8-8f49-ddf93c7ed473

Haldi ceremony is a very common ritual among all cultures and communities in India. in Haldi ceremony, turmeric is to be pasted with other ingredients. This may vary from culture to culture. Then this paste is applied to respective places of bride and groom by the elderly by sacred water.

Wedding Rituals:-

rajput-wedding-rituals-825x510

There are some key steps like Kanyadaan and Paanigrahan, Vivaah Homa, and Agni Pradakshina, and saptapadi according to Grihya Sutrov. Without these keys steps, the marriage cannot complete. Traditionally, in many cultures the bride’s parents host the wedding ceremony. Groom and his family arrive at the Mandap. The bride’s Father then gives her to the groom is know as Kanyadaan. The left hand of the bride is placed on the groom’s right hand then parents utter Today, the bride is Laxmi and the groom is Vishnu, Then they say we will repay the debt to our forefather by continuing next life cycle while giving her away. Garments of both bride and groom’s end are tied in a knot and they make seven circles around the sacred fire uttering promise to each other. This is known as Agni Pradakshina.

Completion of all these rituals, marriage is also concluded. Finally, the couple seeks blessing from elders of the families.

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There are also some post-wedding rituals are vidaai , welcoming of Bride at groom’s house and reception.

In the vidaai ceremony, the bride’s family gives an emotional sendoff to her.

Welcoming of the bride at the groom’s house is done by the groom’s mother, with a traditional aarti.  Finally, reception is done and it can either organized by the bride’s family after the completion of wedding rituals to feed guest and to bless the couple.

The Menace of Terrorism

 

Terrorism, as a method to achieve political aims, has gained

worldwide popularity. Twenty-five people have been killed and 23 wounded in a Suicide bombing inside a Shia mosque in eastern Afghanistan on August 3, A Suicide bomber targeted a group of Sikhs and Hindus on their way to meet Afghanistan’s president in the eastern city of Jalalabad on July 1, killing at least 19 people. A suicide bomber struck outside the Afghan Interior Ministry on Wednesday, allowing gunmen to pass through the outer gate where they traded fire with Security forces, who eventually killed the attackers. Three soldiers were injured in an improvised explosive dev1. Direction (IED) blast triggered by militants in shop Ian district.

The Menace of Terrorism, in this word menace, means something or someone that is likely to cause Serious harm. An example of a menace is a person who is very accident prone and who is likely to break thi3. Insurances. The meaning of word terrorism means the unlawful use of violence and intimidation, especially against civilians, in the pursuit of political aims. NATO defines terrorism in the AAP-06 NATO Glossary of terms and Definitions, Edition 2014 as ” The unlawful use or threatened use of force or violence against individuals or property in an attempt to coerce or intimidate government or societies to achieve political, religious or ideological objectives”. The Reign of Terror during the French Revolution is an example of state terrorism.

There are three types of impact of Terrorism. They are economic, Political and Social. Economic impact means loss of life and property from Sept 11 cost insurance companies us $40 billion. Loss of business for the airline industry had to be ‘cured’ through huge government bail-outs. The following are three ways that terrorism has an impact on the economy.

1. Direct Economic Destruction:-

 

The most immediate and measurable impact of Terrorism is physical destruction. Terrorists destroy existing plants, machines, transportation systems, workers and other economic resources. Smaller scales, acts of Terrorism may blow up cates, churches or roads. Large-scale attacks. most infamously the world Tradable center bombings on Sept 11,2001, can destroy billions of dollars worth of property and Senselessly kill thousands of productive workers.

2. Increased uncertainty in the Markets:-

Even if you do not live anywhere near terrorist attacks, you might still negatively hate uncertainty, and terrorism creates a lot of it. The Financial markets literally shut down after step 11 and did not really recover until months after the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

 

3. Insurance, Trade, Tourism, and FDI:-

There are two obvious industries especially vulnerable to the effects of Terrorism: insurance and tourism. Not all insurance company pay out in the event of international terrorism or foreign wars, so the impact is likely less than you might first expect. Nevertheless, terrorism is risky business for everyone, and insurance companies hate risk as much as anyone else.

Tourism is even more concerning. In France, for example, Tourism accounts for approximately 7 to 8% of total GDP. Vogue list Panayiotis, a director of MKG tourism consultancy. Told Reuters that he expected a 30% decline in visitors to France in the month after the nice attacks.

On a breaded scale, terrorism hurts international trade. This may be due to imminent threats, Such as Compromised trade routes and distributors system or because of the psychological and physical reactions to terrorism. This also means less FDI, especially in unstable countries.

The political impact of Terrorism means Tightening of border security and immigration clearance. Counterterrorism legislation that infringes on individual freedom and personal privacy. High incidents of Terrorism lead to increased political instability in a country. Similarly, the war on terror has left the Significant political impact on Pakistan at domestic, regional and international level.

The social impact of Terrorism means knee. Jerk reactions to crises. Extremist rhetoric and Sensitive political developments over people. Preparing Singaporeans to be psychologically and socially resilient A Social impact projection of Terrorism in the United States is presented in the light of recent conceptual and methodology development.

Courses of Terrorism may be because terrorism has often been approached from historical perspectives, which, if we Take liqueur’s work as an example, dismiss explanation that tries to make into account more than a single case as ” exceeding vague or altogether wrong “. Certainly, existing general account are often based on assumptions that are neither explicit nor factually demonstrable. We find judgments centering on social factors such as permissiveness and affluence in which western youth are raised or the limitations of dramatic models by television. Alternatively, we encounter political explanations that blame revolutionary ideologies, Marxism -Leninism or nationalism, governmental worked in giving in to terrorist demands or Conversely government oppression.

Steps were taken by the government to stop terror attacks:-

  1. There exists a close and effective coordination between intelligence and Security agencies at the center and the states level.
  2. To deal with the internal Security challenges, the government has an avg method the imposed tighter control to prevent increased immigration.
  3. The govt had imposed tighter control to prevent increased immigration.
  4. The govt has ordered effective border management through round the clock surveillance & patrolling on the border areas.
  5. Intelligence setup has been upgraded.

There are no easy solutions for us to this problem. But we have to include Some measure – hardening and expending physical barriers around sensitive location and screening at airports & other entry points Tightening controls on people entering the country’s and strong thing investigation & prosecution capabilities for terrorism-related cases.

Some Benefits of Terrorism are:

  1. Attention often from more than one continent with little Offord.
  2. Western countries are likely to spend a lot of money & manpower for protection.
  3. The strength of superior around forces is questioned.
  4. Rational thinking is replaced by emotions in society.
  5. Central as those planning the terrorism are likely the only ones knowing where and when attacks happen.
  6. No verbal skills are needed as the statement are non-metal.

People say that terrorism doesn’t work but, unfortunately, it does some of the results of it could be some as “Positive”, even if the terrorism itself is evil.

For example, the UK government would not deal with the oppression of the nationalist minority in Northern Ireland or deal with the violent behavior of police or the discrimination by local authorities etc. It refused to even discuss the issues. The IRA, S campaign eventually forced the UK govt to talk and the result was the Good Friday agreement & the cessation of violent activity. Remember that all resistance movement or freedom fighters are labeled as terrorists by those opposed to them but history often later sees them as heroes.

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